• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hous Process for producing Sodium Carbonate

Extracts from this document...


Hou's Process for Sodium Carbonate Introduction: Hou's process is developed based on Solvay process by Chinese chemist Debang Hou in 1930s; the first few steps are the same as the Solvay process. However, instead of treating the remaining solution with calcium carbonate (CaCO3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3) are pumped into the solution, then sodium chloride (NaCl) is added until the solution saturates at 40 �C. Next, the solution is cooled to 10 �C. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) precipitates and is removed by filtration, and the solution is recycled to produce more sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). ...read more.


can be used as fertilizer, and can also be united with the production of ammonium. Hou's process uses carbon monoxide (CO) to produce the required carbon dioxide (CO2) instead of using calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This eliminates the by-product calcium chloride (CaCl2) which is produced from the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the Solvay process. (Source 3.) How does the Hou's process help society? In 1930s, the Chinese were not able to produce Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) by themselves. The Chinese government had to import Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) ...read more.


Hou's process is a very useful upgrade for making sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), because it reduces the pollution; improve the efficiency of making Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3); and produces useful by-product. Source Citation 1. Ondrey, Gerald. "This pressure filter helps soda-ash producers deal with waste sludge." Chemical Engineering 113.9 (2006): 16. Academic OneFile. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. Document URL http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=AONE&docId=A152182482&source=gale&srcprod=AONE&userGroupName=ko_pl_portal&version=1.0 2. Kiefer, David M. (200 s2). "It was all about alkali," Today's Chemist at Work, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 45-6. 3. Yanyun J (2006). "Hou's process (for sodamanu-facture)", ChemYQ, http://www.hellochem.com/En/xz/xz8/79110crmrn.htm Grade 12 Chemistry Mr. Newell Class Johnny Zhao ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    The pH Scale * * Each change of one pH unit represents a tenfold change in the hydrogen ion concentration * pH is equal to the power of 10 of the hydrogen ion concentration. * pH is temperature dependant, it also has a scale of 1 to 14.

  2. Free essay

    Energy content Cal/g

    2.91 2.96 2.75 2.22 1.9 Actual Energy Content ( Cal/g) 5.5 * 10^-5 +/-20% .00126 +/- 40% .00126 +/- 40% .00126 +/- 40% .00126 +/- 40% Average Actual Energy content (Cal/g) .001019 +/- 40% Calories per gram Average Theoretical Energy content ( Cal/g)

  1. FInding the percentage purity of CACO3 in egg shell

    mass CaCO3 = 0.0475 x 100 = 4.750 g uncertainty = 0.348% = (0.348/100) x 4.750 = 0.1653g Mass of CaCO3 = 4.750 g ± 0.1653 g Percentage purity = (Mass of CaCO3/Mass of egg shell) x 100 = (4.750/4.931)x100 = 96.32% Conclusion The main aim of this experiment was

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    into the water until the cross cannot be seen. Record the water level and the turbidity result is obtained (measured in NTU units). Acidity The pH of water systems generally lies between 6.5-8.5 and this usually represents a healthy water system.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work