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How the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of the reaction with magnesium.

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Introduction

How does a Change in Concentration Affect the Rate of Reaction ________________ Background Research Factors affecting the rate of reaction consist of: temperature, concentration, particle size and the use of a catalyst. Increasing the concentration of reactants makes the rate of reaction faster because due to the increase in concentration, there is a greater probability of collisions between particles because there are more particles for there to be collisions between. So there is a greater frequency of collision between particles. [1] There are many ways to measure the rates of reaction for example; measuring the volume of gas evolved, change in mass of reactants, change in transmission of light which may be measured by colorimetry, and change in concentration measured using titration. When measuring the rate of reaction via the amount of gas evolved a gas syringe may be used. [1] Aim To investigate how the concentration of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of the reaction with magnesium measured by the time taken for all the magnesium to react with the hydrochloric acid Mg(s)+2HCl(aq)?MgCl2 (aq)+H2 (g) Hypothesis As the concentration of HCl is increased, the rate of reaction will increase because there will be an increased number of reactants for there to be collisions between. ...read more.

Middle

However as the concentration was increased, the reaction became more effervescent. A pattern can be observed in the time by which each reaction takes to go to completion. As the concentration is increased by 0.5 mol/L, the time taken for the reaction to go to completion almost goes to half its previous value. For example, when the concentration is increased from 2.0 mol/L to2.5 mol/L, the time taken for the reaction to go to completion decreases from 1 min 05 seconds to 34 seconds. This is almost half the time taken for 2.0 mol/ L. If we double 32 seconds, we get 1 min 04 seconds which is almost the value obtained from the results. At 2.5M the reaction produced a lot of bubbles and was most effervescent and more violent than the reaction of magnesium with the lower concentrations. Calculations Volume of gas produced= 60.00cm3 ± 0.05 Volume of HCl reacted= 25.00ml ± 0.060 0.5 mol HCl Rate of reaction= increase in product volume/ time taken = (60cm3/1000)/460s = 1.3 x 10-4 dm-3 s-1 ± 0.05 1.0 mol HCl Rate of reaction= increase in product concentration/ time taken = (60cm3/1000)/292s = 2.0 x 10-4 dm-3 s-1 ± 0.05 1.5 mol HCl Rate of reaction= increase in ...read more.

Conclusion

The gas syringe should be placed outside of the bath because if it is placed inside, the gas will have to fight against the weight of the water which will make my readings extremely inaccurate and also placing the gas syringe outside of the bath will make it easier for me to observes when the gas has stopped evolving Human Error/ Systematic Error Accidentally I had dropped one of the 4cm magnesium ribbons into the HCl without starting the timer. This had not only cut down on the time I had to carry out the experiment but since I had exactly the length of magnesium ribbon I needed; no less, no more, I was 4 cm short of magnesium because the trial I?d messed up did not count. However I did manage to get some more, and finish my experiment For the materials, always have more than the exact amount of which you need. This will be of very efficient use if one is to accidentally cause a human error such as; start the reaction without timing it, one can redo that trial with the extra reactants at hand. ...read more.

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