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Hydrogen bonding in the trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate system

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Introduction

Hydrogen bonding in the trichloromethane-ethyl ethanoate system Aim: Trichloromethane and ethyl ethanoate, do not form hydrogen bonds with themselves but they do with each other. In the practical, we shall investigate the formation of hydrogen bonds when the two liquids are mixed. Hypothesis: The more Trichloromethane that we add to ethyl ethanoate and the more ethyl ethanoate that we add to Trichloromethane the higher the boiling point of both solutions. Apparatus: * Reflux apparatus * 0-100�C thermometer * Measuring cylinder of 10 cm3 * Measuring cylinder of 25 cm3 * Trichloromethane * Ethyl ethanoate Method: The first part of the practical is to record the boiling pint of trichloromethane and ethyl ethanoate. > Then set up the reflux apparatus fitted with a thermometer as show in fig. ...read more.

Middle

Fig. 1 Data recorded: Boiling points of ethyl ethanoate and trichloromethane Boiling point (�C) Ethyl ethanoate 70 Trichloromethane 54 Trichloromethane been added to Ethyl ethanoate Ethyl ethanoate + 2 cm3 of trichloromethane Boiling point: First time Second time Third time 71�C 71�C 71�C Average: 71�C Ethyl ethanoate + 4 cm3 of trichloromethane Boiling point: First time Second time Third time 71�C 72�C 72�C Average: 71.7�C Ethyl ethanoate + 6 cm3 of trichloromethane Boiling point: First time Second time Third time 72�C 72�C 73�C Average: 72.3�C Ethyl ethanoate + 8 cm3 of trichloromethane Boiling point: First time Second time Third time 71�C 75�C 74�C Average: 73.3�C Ethyl ethanoate + 10 cm3 of trichloromethane Boiling point: First time Second time Third time 74�C 75�C 74�C Average: 74.3�C Ethyl ethanoate been added to trichloromethane Trichloromethane + 2 cm3 ethyl ethanoate Boiling point: First time Second time third ...read more.

Conclusion

This extra energy, heat energy in this case is that is need to break the bonds is represented as an increase in the temperature need for the solution to change from the liquid state to the gas state. The wide range in the mixture boiling point is because there are more impurities in the solution and the more is added the bigger the range would be. There were some problems during the experiment for example; some of the mixture escaped throw the opening in the top of the reflux tube because the water could not cool the vapour fast enough. This put an error to the boiling point because by the end the solution was less than when we started. This make easier for the solution to evaporate. It was hard to tell when the real boiling point was. These errors could be correct by using a better cooling agent and by having a close reflux tube. ...read more.

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