IB questions and answers on Atomic Theory
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IBHL CHEMISTRY I - UNIT 2 PROBLEM SET (TOPICS 2 AND 3) Name: _____________ TOPIC 2 - Atomic Theory 1. What is the atomic number? What information does it provide? # of protons in the nucleus 2. What is the mass number? How is this different from atomic mass? # of neutrons + # of protons for one isotope of one particular atom - atomic mass is the weighted average mass for all of an element's isotopes 3. According to the most current model of the atom, describe the location, charge, and relative mass of protons, neutrons and electrons. A labeled diagram may help. 4. Define isotope. isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons; they describe how an element can occur with a variety of mass numbers (same number of protons, but different mass numbers) 5. Four elements are described below: Element # of protons # of neutrons # of electrons A 5 6 2 B 1 1 1 C 1 0 0 D 5 5 5 A) Which elements are isotopes of each other? (2 pairs) A/D and B/C B) How will elements A and D compare in terms of chemical/physical properties?
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet 21. a) Indicate the wavelength of each wave in the following wave diagrams. b) Which of the waves has a higher frequency? Wave B c) Which of the waves has a lower energy? Wave A Wave A Wave B 22. As wavelength gets shorter, frequency increases. 23. As wavelength gets shorter, energy increases. 24. Describe the Bohr model of the atom, including the evidence collected that led to its development. Nucleus at center with protons and neutrons; successive energy levels containing electrons surround nucleus. Bohr's model was based upon evidence from line spectra, namely the emission spectrum for hydrogen 25. What is the difference between a bright line spectrum and a continuous spectrum? How do energy levels account for the appearance of bright line spectra? bright line spectra show only distinct, finite colors (not an infinite amount. Continuous spectra show a fully blended rainbow of color with no gaps between. Bright line spectra are produced by electron jumping between energy levels. Since there are only a certain amount of jumps between levels possible, only a certain amount of colors can be produced. This shows up as the bright line spectrum 26. What is the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum? The spectrum of all types of light in the universe (visible and non-visible)
42. An atom is in the excited state when one or more electrons moves to a higher than normal energy level. 43. Which of the following has the highest energy? A) 4d B) 5s C) 5p D) 3p 44. Which of the following has the lowest energy? A) 6s B) 5p C) 4f D) 6p 45. Give electron complete configurations for: Na+ (1s22s22p6) Fe (1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6) Br (1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5) Ar (1s22s22p63s23p6) Al+3 (1s22s22p6) O-2 (1s22s22p6) He (1s2) Ni+2 (1s22s22p63s23p63d8), U (1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p67s25f 4) Ag (1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d9), K (1s22s22p63s23p64s1) Ne (1s22s22p6). 46. Give shorthand electron configurations for: Ag [Kr] 5s24d9, I [Kr] 5s24d105p5, Rb [Kr] 5s1, Au [Xe] 6s24f145d9, Cu [Ar] 4s13d10, S-2 [Ar] 47. What does isoelectronic mean same electron configuration (same # of electrons)? Give three elements that are isoelectronic with Kr. Se-2, Br-1, Rb+1, Sr+2 48. 1s22s22p63s23p4 is the electron configuration for which element? How many valence electrons does the element have? Sulfure; 6 valence electrons 49. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 is the electron configuration for which noble gas? How can you use its electron configuration to confirm it is a noble gas? Kr; Since 4 is the highest principle energy level reached, you need to count the number of electrons in level 4 (both from 4s and 4p) There are 2 electrons in 4s and 6 in 4p, 2 and 6 add up to 8 which, according to the octet rule, is stable.
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