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im To determine the relative molecular mass of chloroacetic acid ClCH2COOH

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Introduction

Aim To determine the relative molecular mass of chloroacetic acid (ClCH2COOH). Data Collection Table (1): masses of items used in the experiment. Item Mass (g) (�0.05g) Beaker 45.80 Beaker + Chloroacetic acid 47.80 Table (2): volume of solutions used in the experiment. Solution Volume (cm3) Sodium hydroxide (0.1M) 20.8 � 0.1 Chloroacetic acid (total) 100.00 � 0.20 Chloroacetic acid (reacted) 10.00 � 0.06 * Two drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added to the chloroacetic acid solution to enable us to determine when the solution is neutralized. Phenolphthalein is pink in basic and neutral solutions and colorless in acidic solutions. * When 20.8 cm3 � 0.1cm3 of sodium hydroxide were titrated into the flask containing 10.00cm3 � 0.06 cm3 chloracetic acid and two drops of phenolphthalein indicator, the color of the solution changed from colorless to pink, which indicates that the solution has been neutralized. Data Processing and Presentation 1. Number of moles of sodium hydroxide reacted Conversion factor 1 cm3 = 10-3 dm3 20.8 cm3 = 20.8 * 10-3 dm3 = 2.08 * 10-2 dm3 Number of moles (n) ...read more.

Middle

- (mass of beaker) = (47.80) -(45.80) = 2.00g 5. Experimental relative molecular mass of chloroacetic acid number of moles (n) = mass (m) relative molecular mass(Mr) n = m (multiply by Mr) Mr (Mr) (n) = m (divide by n) Mr = m = 2.00 = 95 gmol-1 n 2.1 * 10-2 6. Theoretical relative molecular mass of chloroacetic acid Theoretical relative molecular mass (Mr) of chloroacetic acid (ClCH2COOH) = Mr Cl + 2(Mr C) +3(Mr H) +2(Mr O) = (35.45) + 2(12.01) +3(1.01) +2(16.00) = 94.50 gmol-1 7. Percentage error Percentage error = |theoretical value-experimental value| *100% |theoretical value| = |94.50 - 95 | *100% = 0.5% | 94.50 | Conclusion and Evaluation In this experiment, the experimental relative molecular mass of chloroacetic acid (ClCH2COOH) was found to be 95 gmol-1. The experiment was quite successful as the experimental molecular mass of chloroacetic acid is quite close to the theoretical molecular mass of chlorocetic acid (94.50 gmol-1). ...read more.

Conclusion

4. The beaker might not have been cleaned properly. Thus impurities may have affected mass measurements by slightly increasing the mass of the chloroacetic acid. 5. The uncertainty of the triple beam balance (�0.05g) might have affected mass measurements. 6. Volume measuring equipment such as the burette and pipettes might not have been cleaned and dried properly. Impurities and traces of water might thus have slightly increased volume measurements. Improvements 1. Using a more accurate balance: e.g. a triple beam balance. 2. Making sure that the equipment is properly cleaned before conducting the experiment in order to get rid of any impurities. 3. Repeating the experiment once or twice and taking average results. This is likely to reduce the effects of random error. 4. Making sure that the scale of the triple beam balance is viewed at right angles to minimize the possibility of parallax error occurring. 5. Making sure that the meniscus in the pipettes and burette is viewed at right angles to minimize the possibility of parallax error occurring. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

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