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Neutralization Titration using a Strong Acid and Weak Base

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Introduction

Ryan Chew Neutralization Titration using a Strong Acid and Weak Base What mass of sodium carbonate is needed to make 250cm3 of a 0.0500 mol dm-3 solution? What is the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid of 0.108 mols? This experiment involves the making of a standard sodium carbonate solution and using the exact concentration of this solution to find the accurate concentration of an approximately 0.1mol Hydrochloric acid solution using an indicator (Methyl Orange). We will be using the same amount of indicator and Sodium Hydroxide solution for this experiment each time it is repeated to minimize any errors that may occur. It is expected that through this experiment we will observe a color change of the indicator from the Alkaline yellow, to a strong orange colored solution. We will be measuring the amount of Hydrochloric acid that is required each time this experiment is repeated to determine the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid. Variables Dependent variable 1. The dependent variable would be the Hydrochloric acid as the amount used will depend on the experimenter?s actions Independent variable 1. the control variable is the experimenter?s eye and judgment Control Variables 1. the volume of Sodium Carbonate in each titration 2. the mole of the Hydrochloric acid used 3. ...read more.

Middle

Burette ±0.02 2. Pipette ±0.06 3. Scale ±0.001 4. Titre ±0.04 Amount of Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate weighed = 1.325 ±0.001 Amount of Sodium Carbonate solution used = 20 cm3 Physical observations: Part A 1. When the anhydrous sodium carbonate was mixed with the deionized water, we saw no color change in the water and the sodium carbonate dissolved completely Part B 1. The sodium carbonate solution was clear, when the indicator was added it became a strong yellow color 2. When the hydrochloric acid was added the color slowly changed from yellow to an apricot-like orange 3. When access Hydrochloric acid was added, the solution turned pin Figure 1 Titration number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Initial Burette reading ±0.02 11.62 6.45 12.05 13.20 6.45 8.10 11.05 0.35 Final Burette reading ±0.02 31.12 26.50 30.42 32.00 26.23 27.65 29.25 25.84 Amount of HCl used ±0.04 19.50 20.05 18.37 18.80 19.78 19.55 18.20 25.49 Figure 2 Data Processing The total amount of HCl used was: 159.74 cm3 ±0.32cm3 The average volume of Hydrochloric acid used is calculated as: ±0.32cm3 Due to the observance of a wide spread area of results, I have selected three close results to be more accurate in my calculations. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another reason that there may have been an inaccuracy could have been because of human error in reading the scale wrong, for example reading above the meniscus instead of below it. Parallax error is also a possibility; this would cause the calculations and results to fluctuate. Systematic errors such as not zeroing the scale correctly could lead to significant fluctuations in the measurements, or slight inaccuracies to a more accurate reading. However, in this case, there was no percentage error in the results. Improving the experiment Although the results had 0% error, the experiment could be further improved my using a more accurate and reliable way to measure the volume of the HCl that was released by using possibly an electronic measuring device that would be more accurate in reading the scale. The random error can be minimized by performing the experiment a larger amount of times and selecting the best results to average. Another way to improve the experiment, would be to use an electronic magnetic stirrer to stir the substance whilst the titration is occurring to gain a more accurate time for stopping as the reaction will occur much faster due to the continuous constant motion of the stirrer. The best way to fix this type of error is to obtain more accurate scales to measure the substances. Or to have a data logger, with a pH probe to gain accurate readings for the neutralization. ...read more.

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