• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Organic Chemistry Summary

Extracts from this document...


In conclusion, the following order represents the boiling points in the discussed organic compounds (in order from highest to lowest) - 1) Carboxylic acids 2) Alcohol, 3) Ketone, 4) Aldehyde, 5) Amine, 6) Ether and 7) Alkane. Alkanes, which are hydrocarbons that consist only of single bonds, have the least boiling point due to the fact that they experience only London dispersion forces. Hence the longer the carbon chain (of the alkane) the higher the boiling point, as there more forces to break through in order for the molecules to boil. The strength of Van der Waal forces (in this case London dispersion) depend on two factors: the length of the alkane and the surface are of the molecule. In the case of branched alkanes, there is less surface area in contact between two molecules than two molecules of a straight chain alkane, and so the branched alkane will have a lower boiling point as they don't "lock" as well between themselves. ...read more.


This creates a slight dipole-dipole force between them, attaining their higher boiling point than alkanes. Additionally, while being unable to hydrogen bond amongst themselves, the two lone pair on the oxygen allow ethers to hydrogen bond with water. However, since they only have the oxygen, their known only to be hydrogen bond acceptors and not donors. Ethers can be soluble in water, but significantly less than that of alcohols. Amines, can be classified into three different categories - primary, secondary and tertiary. Each category differs by the number of hydrogens in their functional group. Primary amines consist of NH2 bonded to an alkyl. Secondary amines consist of NH bonded to 2 alkyl groups. And lastly, tertiary amines consist of N being bonded to three alkyl groups. Primary amines, do experience hydrogen bonding within each other, hence their boiling point is significantly higher than that of alkanes and ethers. ...read more.


Additionally the boiling point of the alcohol increases as the number of carbons much like alkanes, as the dispersion forces increase. As the number of hydroxyl groups increase in the alcohol, the boiling point increases in proportion as there is more surface area being hydrogen bonded. The compound with highest boiling point from these noted organic compounds are the carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are identified by their carboxyl group, C(=O)OH. Much like alcohols they share the ability of hydrogen bond, resulting in a higher boiling point than ethers, alkanes, amines, aldehydes and ketones. However, in terms of comparing the boiling points of carboxylic acids and alcohols, carboxylic acids have a slightly higher boiling point due to presence of an extra oxygen in carboxylic acids. Hence giving to molecules another opportunity to hydrogen bond The two hydrogen bonds (represented in the red) result in a dimer, which is molecule formed by two identical compounds. Hence when this (as a molecule) interacts with its' neighbours the size is much larger which results in stronger dispersion forces. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Properties of Hydrocarbons

    Since this lab mostly involved qualitative tests, quantitative measurements were not vital and therefore there was little need for measurements which would have determined accuracy.

  2. Analysis of the Nitrogen Content of Lawn Fertiliser

    on the etched mark, making sure it's at eye level, which will effectively limit this parallax error. The interpretation of the orange colour determined at the end point could also have been another error. Subjective judgment when determining the shade of orange is another factor which may have affected the titre volume, and thus the final outcome.

  1. Melting and Freezing point of naphthalene

    I think the results would have changed a lot if we used candle wax. It takes a very little amount of time to melt and solidify. During the period when the naphthalene changed from solid to liquid the particles started moving at a higher rate at each 30s interval.

  2. Design: Investigating the boiling point different alcohols

    Immediately record the temperature when the alcohol boils. 9. Wait for the test tube to cool down and then discard the remained alcohol. 10. Repeat step 2 to step 9 twice with another test tube (same type) each time. 11. Replace methanol by ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and octan-1-ol in step 1 respectively.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen in water

    Air + bacteria tank --> (5.80+5.10+5.50+5.00+5.10+5.50+5.80+5.00+5.10)/9 = 5.32 mg l-1 (�0.15mg l-1) Table showing the average dissolved oxygen in each tank. (All readings to 2 decimal place) Place of water extraction Average Dissolved oxygen/ mg l-1 (�0,15 mg l-1 )

  2. IB Chemistry Kinetics Exam Questions and Answers

    Rate = k [A]2 2 0 2 c. Rate = k[A][B] 1 1 2 d. Rate = k[A]3 3 0 3 e. Rate = k[A]2[B] 2 1 3 f. Rate = k[A][B]2 1 2 3 g. Rate = k 0 0 0 24. Give the integrated rate law, the t1/2 equation, and the plot that would give a

  1. Organic lab. Comparison of alkanes and alkenes

    We can tell from the color change that an addition reaction occurred. 1. Combustibility of hexane and hexene Substance Hexane Hexene Observations When the lighted splint is applied to the basin full of hexane, the whole surface of the alcohol catches fire (combusts)

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    The ozone molecule is formed from the reaction between an oxygen molecule and an oxygen atom (radical): *** Note: the 2 red dots show a coordinate covalent bond (all electrons are donated by the oxygen molecule when bonding with the oxygen atom)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work