• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Period 3 Chlorides. Aim: To study the chlorides of period 3 elements and classify them according to structural type and bonding.

Extracts from this document...


Chemistry Lab Report - Investigating the properties of period 3 Chlorides Introduction: Aim: To study the chlorides of period 3 elements and classify them according to structural type and bonding. Hypothesis: If the compound dissolves in the water there may be a temperature change. If it's a small temperature change, then this will indicate that a physical process has taken place. While a large temperature change will indicate that a chemical process has taken place. This will help distinguish between the physical process of dissolving and chemical one of hydrolysis when you add these substances to water. And if there are any pH changes that take place when the chlorides are reacted with water. A decrease in pH will indicate that hydrolysis has taken place. Finally, consider a physical data for each compound and reach a conclusion its bonding and structure. General Background: As the number of valence electrons increases, there is a steady increase in the number of electrons available for bond formation and hence in the number of chlorine atoms that each element bonds to - NaCl, MgCl2, AlCl3 (more correctly written as Al2Cl6 in its gaseous state), SiCl4, PCl5 (though PCl3 also exists). The chlorides of metals, such as sodium chloride and magnesium chloride, are ionically bonded crystalline solids with high melting points. When added to water these chlorides dissolve without chemical reaction, to give solutions in which the component ions can behave independently. ...read more.


has any gas evolved at any time? If so, is the gas acidic? Can it be identified using a simple test? 5) Using either universal indicator solution (2 - 4 drops) or a piece of pH paper, I compared the colour with the chart provided, and noted the pH indicated. 6) All the above steps were repeated for the rest of the chloride samples (MgCl2 and AlCl3) provided. 7) For comparison with the above, measure the pH of the distilled water in a test tube by using either universal indicator or pH paper. 8) On mixing with acetone, repeat the steps of that of water, only now using acetone. This time, there is no need to examine the pH. Results: Data collection: a) On mixing the given chlorides with water: Note: pH of water = 7 Appearance NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 Initial temperature 29�C 29�C 29�C Final temperature 29�C 31�C 77�C Does it dissolve Yes Yes Yes pH of solution 8 9 10 Other observations (if any) - Gas released (pH 5), solution turned green Heat was released, effervescence occurred, gas released had a pH of 5 b) On mixing the given chlorides with cyclohexane (acetone): Appearance NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 Initial temperature 28�C 28�C 28�C Final temperature 29.5�C 29�C 56�C Does it dissolve No Yes Yes Other observations (if any) - - Solution began bubbling, heat was released c) ...read more.


Evaluation: During the experiment there were a couple of errors in the measurement of the temperatures and pH of the solutions, and in the volume of distilled water used. Weaknesses in my method (Sources of error): * While measuring the pH of the solutions it was a bit hard determining the colour change to compare with the pH colour chart. * A measuring cylinder was used to measure the volume of distilled water used. * When the thermometer was placed in the solution of aluminium chloride and water/ acetone, the temperature increased rapidly and so it was hard to follow the meniscus of mercury and note the highest reading. Prevention of those errors: * When measuring the pH of the solutions, a white tile or even white piece of paper should be kept behind the test tube so as to find out the correct colour change to be compared with that on the pH colour chart. Usage of a digital pH meter would make the results much more accurate. * A pipette should be used instead of a measuring cylinder in order to accurately measure the volume of the distilled water. * The error due to the thermometer could be improved by repeating the measuring of the temperature of aluminium chloride with water/acetone at least five times, and finding the average value. Otherwise, a digital thermometer could be used to improve the accuracy of the results. ?? ?? ?? ?? Teacher: Minati Sahu Chemistry Lab Report - Period 3 Chlorides Kelwin Joanes Page 1 of 8 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. A comparison of various proprieary antacids

    Moles of sodium hydroxide=0.000625 moles �4% Initial moles of HCl= 0.0125 moles (� 0.24%) Moles of HCl that reacted with 1.25cm3 NaOH=0.000625 moles( �4%) Moles of HCl that react with the antacid = 0.0125 moles (� 0.24%)-0.000625 moles( �4%) =0.011875 moles �4.24% For Eno sachets: Moles of HCl remaining= moles

  2. Objective: 1.To study the preparation of 1-bromobutane from 1-butanol by an SN2 reaction ...

    was placed to a test tube 2. A few drops of sodium iodide-acetone reagent were added to the test tube 3. The mixture was shaken and let it stand for 3 minutes. 4. Changes were observed. (ii) Bromine test 1. 5 drops of the product (1-bromobutane) was placed to a test tube 2.

  1. The Extraction of Aluminium.

    When a new plant or factory is created it can either be good or a bad thing and have both positive and negative effects on the economy and the environnent. With this plant in Reydarfjordur it has a great effect on the economy as it brings many new jobs to this not yet developed region of Iceland.

  2. Dissolved Oxygen in water

    We have obtained a good set of results but now it is important to process them. To make these results more meaningful we will obtain an average for the dissolved oxygen content in each tank. To find the average, let's say in tank 2 we add up all the dissolved oxygen readings and divide them by 9.

  1. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    distilled at different times, they could have varying amounts of dissolved impurities. Therefore, to prevent the oxidizing of the zinc metal strips, they should be kept in the protective packaging which they were received in from the manufacturer for as long as possible to mitigate the effects of zinc oxidizing.

  2. Aim: To investigate the chemical properties of the halogens and some of their ...

    The volume of the products. 2. The amount of the products. * Independent: The dependent variables will be the following: 1.The volume of the chemicals used.

  1. Reactivity of Metals with Water and Acid

    from the magnesium and hydrochloric acid reaction and also the calcium and water reaction is hydrogen gas. 1. Does the reactivity increase or decrease as one moves down a group of elements? 1. As one moves down a group of elements on the periodic table, for the metals, the reactivity

  2. The aim of this experiment is to examine the enthalpy of combustion of the ...

    The flame was light orange. Incomplete transmission of heat is assumed due to the movements caused in the laboratory, which affected the flame and therefore the transmission. Qualitative data Mass of butanol Mass 1 Mass 2 Mass 3 Average mass Initial mass g ± 0.01 125.43 147.35 136.14 136.30 Final mass g ± 0.01 124.04

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work