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Preparing Salts- IB Lab

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Introduction

16.01.2007 CHEMISTRY LAB REPORT 2 PREPARING SALTS (0,124 grams of CACl2) BACKGROUND INFO Calcium chloride (CaCl2) has been manufactured for over 100 years. The salt is used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, and is supplied as flakes, pebbles, pellets, powders and solutions with varying concentrations. Calcium chloride dissociates easily in water to form Ca and Cl ions. Calcium is essential for the formation of skeletons, neural transmission, and muscle contraction, coagulation of the blood, and algae and higher plant growth. Chloride ions are also required for normal cellular operations in animals and humans, and serve as a micronutrient for plants, playing important roles in photosynthesis and osmoregulation. Calcium chloride is considered to be practically non-toxic to aquatic organisms and bioaccumulation is unlikely. Calcium chloride does not burn and is not flammable. Calcium chloride is corrosive to some metals. Calcium chloride is completely soluble in water. Because calcium chloride is hygroscopic, it should be stored in a dry place and be protected from atmospheric moisture. Heat is produced when calcium chloride is dissolved in water and spattering and boiling can occur. (Calcium Chloride SIDS Initial Assessment Profile, 4, 12-14) Salts are prepared by five methods. A metal can combine directly with a nonmetal to form a salt. A metal can react with acid to form a salt and release hydrogen gas. ...read more.

Middle

36.04�0.124�110.98= 0.0828 grams of Ca(OH)2 4) We measured exactly 0.0828 grams of Ca(OH)2 . 5) We added 20 drops of HCl into the Ca(OH)2. 6) To have only salt as a product, we needed to heat the beaker so that the water would evaporate. After we heated the beaker for several minutes, we let it cool. 7) When the beaker was cool enough, we measured the salt and the beaker's mass. It was 32,5097 �0,0005 grams. To make sure that there was no water, we decided to heat and measure it again. 8) The second time we heat and cooled and measured it, we found 32, 4896 �0,0005 grams. 9) Then we washed the beaker and measured it when it's empty. We found 32.3551�0,0005 grams. 10) We subtracted the beaker and the salt's mass from the empty beaker's mass to find salt's mass. The salt's mass is 0,1345� 0,0005 grams. Our aim was to prepare 0.124 grams of CaCl2 salt. RAW DATA PROCESSED DATA 1st Measurement (�0,00005 g) 2nd Measurement (�0,00005 g) Beaker+Salt Salt Beaker+Salt Salt 32,5097 �0,0005 g 0.1546 �0,0005 g 32, 4896 �0,0005 g 0,1345 �0,0005 g CONCLUSION Our aim was to create 0,124 grams of calcium chloride. In order to prepare the salt, we used a base and an acid. To achieve our aim, first we decided which method we should use to prepare this salt. We had two options because we didn't have other materials. ...read more.

Conclusion

With this experiment we not only used what we have learned about preparing salts but we also used stoichiometry, which is a very important topic in chemistry. We did all the calculations and the experiment ourselves and we get to apply our knowledge. EVALUATION Although the result we get was really close, we didn't exactly find 0.124 grams of CaCl2. The percentage error of the experiment is %9. We found 0.1345 � 0,0005 grams. To make this experiment better, first of all we could have research our salt and learn more about it. We didn't know that Ca(OH)2 is hygroscopic in the first time we measured it's mass. That's why its mass may have been measured more than it should be. But the second time we measured the beaker, we were more careful however still when we let the beaker to cool, its mass might have increased. After we heated the beaker, we waited for several minutes and waited it to cool but the beaker and the salt within might have been still warm. If we measured salt's mass when it was still hot, that means we found the mass more than it should be. If we had more time, maybe we could be sure that it was in the room temperature and then measure it. Although we cleaned the beaker after the experiment, we might have left salt in it and when we measured empty beaker's mass, we might have found something wrong. We could have cleaned it more neatly. ...read more.

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