• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Properties of Hydrocarbons

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Properties of Hydrocarbons - Alkanes and Alkenes Aim: To demonstrate that different classes of organic molecules undergo different characteristic reactions. Data Collection: Cyclohexane Toluene Cyclohexene Combustion - no sootiness - calm, bright flame - short burn - a lot of sootiness - strong, bright flame - long burn - medium sootiness - bright flame - short burn Solubility in distilled water - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed Solubility in dichloromethane - soluble - soluble - mostly soluble Density 0.79 g/ 1 cm� = 0.79 g/cm� Actual: 0.7785 g/cm� 0.86 g/ 1 cm� = 0.86 g/cm� Actual: 0.8669 g/cm� 0.87 g/ 1 cm� = 0.87 g/cm� Actual: 0.81 g/cm� Potassium permanganate - immiscible -immiscible -immiscible - light brown precipitate formed Bromination - colorless layers - insoluble - denser than bromine - forms layers - light orange color below, dark color above - insoluble - insoluble - denser than bromine - light orange color Addition of Sulfuric acid ...read more.

Middle

The solubility results achieved are very accurate as justified by the following statement, "Alkanes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents. Alkenes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents." (An introduction to alkanes and cycloalkanes, an introduction to alkenes) The density was calculated by calculating the mass of 1 cm� of each hydrocarbon. The density values were very accurate relative to the actual values for density for the hydrocarbons. The values for cyclohexane and toluene show that accurate equipment was used such as a measuring cylinder and an electronic balance. However, the value for cyclohexene shows that some human error did exist because it was slightly inaccurate relative to the values achieved for the other hydrocarbons. Cyclohexane and toluene had no reactions with potassium permanganate as the substances did not mix. Cyclohexene, on the other hand, did not mix with potassium permanganate but formed a light brown precipitate suggesting that a small reaction did occur. All the hydrocarbons were insoluble in bromine water. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, in the combustion test, equal measurements of the substances could have been used to observe the length of each substance's burn. This was impossible to identify because of the large amount used for toluene which meant that it burned for a very long time. The use of corks and test tubes for the solubility tests and other reactions ensured that the mixing was efficient and good observations were able to be made. Safety precautions were also taken throughout the experiment. These factors all show that the experiment was successful as it provided correct results, justified by reliable sources on the internet. Although the experiment was a success, I could have been more focused when carrying out the experiments and the density values I obtained could have been more accurate. In addition, the large amount of toluene that was used would not have occurred and it would have been easy to identify the most efficient burner. Further research can possibly be done on the amount of energy for each substance during combustion to identify the most useful substance for burning and chemical equations could have been written to observe the products in the reactions that occurred. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    at constant pressure for any stoichiometric equation. * Using bond enthalpies: o The bond enthalpy is the average energy needed to separate the two atoms in a bond in the gas phase. o Given as average because the bond strength varies slightly depending upon the surrounding molecule.

  2. Aim To investigate the chemical properties of alcohol

    10 drops of dilute sulphuric acid + 5 drops of potassium dichromate + 5 drops of ethanol Initially a colourless solution is present. Upon heating the solution turns gradually to a dark green colour. Discussion In the reaction between sodium and ethanol the products are sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.

  1. Enthalpy of Combustion of Alcohols Lab

    The ethanol lamp was warmer when reweighed 1. Yellow/Orange flame 2. The water beaker turned black at the bottom 3. Butanol lamp was warmer when we reweighed it. DATA PROCESSING METHANOL: Step 1: Calculating the number of moles of Methanol combusted n = m/M CH3OH M = (12)

  2. Using Solubility Rules to Indentify Unknown Solutions

    = 5% Moles of solute Concentration ( M) = 0.1M = ? x = 0.0002 1% x= 0.0002 2x10-5 g Mass of solute Moles = 2x10 -4 1% = ? x = 2x10 -4 x 58.4 x = 0.1 0.00002g x = 0.1 2x10 -5 Precipitate equation E = XY + PS = XY(aq)+PS(aq)

  1. Examining the Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions (Final)

    + 2NaI(aq) ZnI2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction ZnSO4 - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) ZnSO3(s) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Zn2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) ZnSO3(s) This equation shows that a precipitate has formed. However the table shows that no change has occured.

  2. The aim of this experiment is to examine the enthalpy of combustion of the ...

    which results in the highest enthalpy change of combustion as more energy is given out to the surroundings. The alcohols increase in size by a CH group each time. This results in an increase of approximately 240KJ mol for the enthalpy change of combustion.

  1. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    The US and 12 nations in Europe agree to ban all use and production of CFCs by 2000. This is highly significant as these countries produce three quarters of CFCs in the world. Increased research and development into new forms of UV protection such as new sunscreens.

  2. Organic lab. Comparison of alkanes and alkenes

    This is the soot collecting on the basin. Therefore, a incomplete combustion occurred, in which the bi products of CO and carbon were released. Indeed, the soot is the amount of carbon produced by the combustion. The lighted splint does not cause the paraffin wax to combust.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work