• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Properties of Hydrocarbons

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Properties of Hydrocarbons - Alkanes and Alkenes Aim: To demonstrate that different classes of organic molecules undergo different characteristic reactions. Data Collection: Cyclohexane Toluene Cyclohexene Combustion - no sootiness - calm, bright flame - short burn - a lot of sootiness - strong, bright flame - long burn - medium sootiness - bright flame - short burn Solubility in distilled water - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed Solubility in dichloromethane - soluble - soluble - mostly soluble Density 0.79 g/ 1 cm� = 0.79 g/cm� Actual: 0.7785 g/cm� 0.86 g/ 1 cm� = 0.86 g/cm� Actual: 0.8669 g/cm� 0.87 g/ 1 cm� = 0.87 g/cm� Actual: 0.81 g/cm� Potassium permanganate - immiscible -immiscible -immiscible - light brown precipitate formed Bromination - colorless layers - insoluble - denser than bromine - forms layers - light orange color below, dark color above - insoluble - insoluble - denser than bromine - light orange color Addition of Sulfuric acid ...read more.

Middle

The solubility results achieved are very accurate as justified by the following statement, "Alkanes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents. Alkenes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents." (An introduction to alkanes and cycloalkanes, an introduction to alkenes) The density was calculated by calculating the mass of 1 cm� of each hydrocarbon. The density values were very accurate relative to the actual values for density for the hydrocarbons. The values for cyclohexane and toluene show that accurate equipment was used such as a measuring cylinder and an electronic balance. However, the value for cyclohexene shows that some human error did exist because it was slightly inaccurate relative to the values achieved for the other hydrocarbons. Cyclohexane and toluene had no reactions with potassium permanganate as the substances did not mix. Cyclohexene, on the other hand, did not mix with potassium permanganate but formed a light brown precipitate suggesting that a small reaction did occur. All the hydrocarbons were insoluble in bromine water. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, in the combustion test, equal measurements of the substances could have been used to observe the length of each substance's burn. This was impossible to identify because of the large amount used for toluene which meant that it burned for a very long time. The use of corks and test tubes for the solubility tests and other reactions ensured that the mixing was efficient and good observations were able to be made. Safety precautions were also taken throughout the experiment. These factors all show that the experiment was successful as it provided correct results, justified by reliable sources on the internet. Although the experiment was a success, I could have been more focused when carrying out the experiments and the density values I obtained could have been more accurate. In addition, the large amount of toluene that was used would not have occurred and it would have been easy to identify the most efficient burner. Further research can possibly be done on the amount of energy for each substance during combustion to identify the most useful substance for burning and chemical equations could have been written to observe the products in the reactions that occurred. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    dioxide o Acid + metal hydrogencarbonate--> salt + Hydrogen + carbon dioxide () * Acids: 1. Hydrogencarbonates are acidic salts: 2. Small charged cations (e.g. ) have acidic salts: 3. Hydrogen sulphates: 4. Ammonium salts: * Bases (unusual) 1. Ammonia: 2.

  2. Aim To investigate the chemical properties of alcohol

    10 drops of dilute sulphuric acid + 5 drops of potassium dichromate + 5 drops of ethanol Initially a colourless solution is present. Upon heating the solution turns gradually to a dark green colour. Discussion In the reaction between sodium and ethanol the products are sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas.

  1. Using Solubility Rules to Indentify Unknown Solutions

    solution combinations will be calculated to determine which ionic compound formed the precipitate. This is done by referring to the periodic table as well as the table of ions and polyatomic ions for information (ionic charges) regarding the ionic solutions.

  2. Examining the Solubility of Substances in Double Replacement Reactions (Final)

    + 2NaI(aq) ZnI2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: No reaction ZnSO4 - Na2SO3 : Overall equation: ZnSO4(aq) + Na2SO3(aq) ZnSO3(s) + Na2SO4(aq) Net Ionic Equation: Zn2+(aq) + SO32-(aq) ZnSO3(s) This equation shows that a precipitate has formed. However the table shows that no change has occured.

  1. Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

    Since hydrogen bonding is much stronger than dipole-dipole, it would take more energy to separate two molecules of methanol than it does to separate two molecules of methanal. Hence methanol would have a higher boiling point than methanal. 8) What conclusion can you make about the boiling point differences between alcohols and aldehydes?

  2. The aim of this experiment is to examine the enthalpy of combustion of the ...

    Methanol has the least number of carbon atoms, therefore the least number of bonds broken which results in lower enthalpy change of combustion as less energy is given out to the surroundings. Pentan-1-ol has the greatest number of carbon atoms in the chain, therefore the most number of bonds broken

  1. Organic lab. Comparison of alkanes and alkenes

    This is the soot collecting on the basin. Therefore, a incomplete combustion occurred, in which the bi products of CO and carbon were released. Indeed, the soot is the amount of carbon produced by the combustion. The lighted splint does not cause the paraffin wax to combust.

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    Point 4.11 ? Analyse the information available that indicates changes in atmospheric ozone concentrations describe the changes observed and explain how this information was obtained. The concentrations of ozone in the atmosphere have been recorded since 1957. In the 1970?s, it was found that CFCs were depleting the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work