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Properties of Hydrocarbons

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Introduction

Properties of Hydrocarbons - Alkanes and Alkenes Aim: To demonstrate that different classes of organic molecules undergo different characteristic reactions. Data Collection: Cyclohexane Toluene Cyclohexene Combustion - no sootiness - calm, bright flame - short burn - a lot of sootiness - strong, bright flame - long burn - medium sootiness - bright flame - short burn Solubility in distilled water - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed - not very soluble - less dense than water - bubbles formed Solubility in dichloromethane - soluble - soluble - mostly soluble Density 0.79 g/ 1 cm� = 0.79 g/cm� Actual: 0.7785 g/cm� 0.86 g/ 1 cm� = 0.86 g/cm� Actual: 0.8669 g/cm� 0.87 g/ 1 cm� = 0.87 g/cm� Actual: 0.81 g/cm� Potassium permanganate - immiscible -immiscible -immiscible - light brown precipitate formed Bromination - colorless layers - insoluble - denser than bromine - forms layers - light orange color below, dark color above - insoluble - insoluble - denser than bromine - light orange color Addition of Sulfuric acid ...read more.

Middle

The solubility results achieved are very accurate as justified by the following statement, "Alkanes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents. Alkenes are virtually insoluble in water, but dissolve in organic solvents." (An introduction to alkanes and cycloalkanes, an introduction to alkenes) The density was calculated by calculating the mass of 1 cm� of each hydrocarbon. The density values were very accurate relative to the actual values for density for the hydrocarbons. The values for cyclohexane and toluene show that accurate equipment was used such as a measuring cylinder and an electronic balance. However, the value for cyclohexene shows that some human error did exist because it was slightly inaccurate relative to the values achieved for the other hydrocarbons. Cyclohexane and toluene had no reactions with potassium permanganate as the substances did not mix. Cyclohexene, on the other hand, did not mix with potassium permanganate but formed a light brown precipitate suggesting that a small reaction did occur. All the hydrocarbons were insoluble in bromine water. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, in the combustion test, equal measurements of the substances could have been used to observe the length of each substance's burn. This was impossible to identify because of the large amount used for toluene which meant that it burned for a very long time. The use of corks and test tubes for the solubility tests and other reactions ensured that the mixing was efficient and good observations were able to be made. Safety precautions were also taken throughout the experiment. These factors all show that the experiment was successful as it provided correct results, justified by reliable sources on the internet. Although the experiment was a success, I could have been more focused when carrying out the experiments and the density values I obtained could have been more accurate. In addition, the large amount of toluene that was used would not have occurred and it would have been easy to identify the most efficient burner. Further research can possibly be done on the amount of energy for each substance during combustion to identify the most useful substance for burning and chemical equations could have been written to observe the products in the reactions that occurred. ...read more.

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