• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Question: How the concentration of acid (HCl) can be determined by titrating it using base (NaOH)?

Extracts from this document...


Question: How the concentration of acid (HCl) can be determined by titrating it using base (NaOH)? Chemicals needed: 1- Phenolphthalein (color indicator). 2- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration of 0.5 molar. 3- Hydrochloric acid (HCl), with unknown concentration. Equipments needed: 1- Flask. 2- Pipette (uncertainty �0.05cm3). 3- Burette (uncertainty �0.05cm3). 4- PH meter. 5- Gloves, lab coat and plastic eye protection. Steps: 1- Add a known volume of HCl using pipette in the flask. 2- Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein in the flask using the pipette. 3- Shake the flask until the color changes to red. 4- Start to add NaOH on the HCl, drop by drop. 5- After each drop shake the flask to accomplish the mixing of the acid with the base. 6- Take readings of PH value using the PH meter, after each drop. ...read more.


01.8 01.5 01.7 01.6 01.8 20.2 01.5 01.6 01.6 01.4 01.5 20.3 00.9 01.4 01.4 01.5 01.3 Below is the table produced after changing the volume of NaOH to the better measurable unit, also after adding the PH values for each volume added of NaOH then divide them by the number of trials to come out with the average PH value. (1.1) table showing the processed data Average PH value 0.0193 13.3 0.0194 13.4 0.0195 13.5 0.0196 13.5 0.0197 13.5 0.0198 13.5 0.0199 13.3 0.0200 07.3 0.0201 01.7 0.0202 01.5 0.0203 01.3 The graph below shows the graphical relationship between volume of NaOH added in dm^3 versus average PH value: As calculated at the neutralization point which is nearly equal to 7, the volume of NaOH added is approximately 0.0250 � (0.0000450) ...read more.


- The PH value as shown from the data collected is changing at a high manner near to the neutralization point; therefore it is not easy to know the precise concentration of NaOH. - Calculating the PH value to indicate the rate of reaction, is not precise, because the PH has a logarithmic function not a linear function, then there will be a small change in the PH value while there will be big change of H+. Improvements: - Using a digital instrument to drop exactly 1.0 cm^3 in each drop. - Using a base with primary standard to titrate HCl may be more accurate to indicate the value of it is concentration. - Using a pipette with less uncertainty may help in improving the data collected. - Using a burette with less uncertainty can determine more accurate results. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Investigate the rate of reaction of luminol in various factors. The objective was to ...

    order for the reaction, which means the effect of doubling the concentration would be quadruple. Evaluation This method provided reliable results, but there are also some errors in it. I have done the following things to avoid as much errors as possible.

  2. Research question - How many molecules are there in a liquid drop?

    These errors were made right and taking trials before the experiment ensured we had a more precise, accurate and relevant experiment. We also decided to take the mass as the dependent variable, instead of volume, as we were provided with a measuring scale which was much more accurate (� 0.01 g)

  1. Group 4

    Specific materials As seen in the previous section, the material with which different parts of the vehicle are built are of primary importance. Depending on how we want specific parts of the car to behave, specific material must be chosen.

  2. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    This is a significant variable to control because if different physical states were used throughout the investigation, the results would be invalid. If one trial uses mossy zinc chunks as the zinc metal reactant, and the other uses zinc metal strips, the results will be quite different due to the

  1. Research Question By measuring the pH value of the acetic ...

    [2] Calculating Ka and pKa [2] Dissociation equation for the acid: HA - H+ + A� Equilibrium expression: Ka = ( [H+] [A�] ) / [HA] pH = -log [H+] � [H+] = 10�pH [H+] = x Molar 1:1 molar ratio between [H+] and [A�] � [A�] = [H+] Ka = [ (A�)

  2. Measuring the fatty acid percentage of the reused sunflower oil after numerous times of ...

    5.665 ± 0.018% = 3.2% ± 0.1% ml/g oleic acid 23 ASLAN Özge Cemre D129077 Calculations for sample 3 (15 times frying): Trial 1: V = 54.5 ± 0.1 ml → Vε = 54.5 ± 0.2% ml m = 5.253 ± 0.001 g → mε = 5.253 ± 0.019% g A% = (54.5 ± 0.2% x 0.0028 x 100)

  1. Chemistry Titration Acid Base Lab

    Concentration of Acetic Acid Before Dilution = 0.9mol/dm3 Sample Calculation B: Calculating Percent Uncertainty for the Volume of Sodium Hydroxide Needed for Different Indicators Example: Bromocresol Green =× =25.0% Sample Calculation C: Calculating the Percent Error Percent error )×100 )

  2. Titration of Na2CO3.xH2O with HCl

    2) Next, I used a 25 ml pipette to measure 25 ml of solution BB, and transferred this to a conical flask. 3) Then I added 3 drops of methyl orange indicator to the solution BB in the conical flask, and swirled it to mix the contents.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work