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Rate of reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Title: Rate of reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid Aim: Magnesium reacts with diluter hydrochloric acid in a conical flask which is connected to a gas syringe. The volume of Hydrogen gas produced is measured over time, and the results are used to plot a graph to determine the rate of reaction with different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Hypothesis: I hypothesise that Hydrochloric Acid 2mol dm-3 going to be the acid that reacts fastest with Magnesium, because there is more concentration of the solute in the solution. A 2mol concentration of the solute means that there are more molecules in the solution that will crash with the Magnesium coil. The lower concentration of the Hydrochloric acid (1mol dm-3) will react slower taking into account that there are less molecules of Hydrochloric acid that will crash with the Magnesium atoms. Therefore I predict that Hydrochloric will be the acid that will take most time to react with the Magnesium. This because Sulphuric acid with the same molar concentration of Hydrochloric acid has more Hydrogen ions then Hydrochloric therefor it is a stronger acid, and thus will react faster than 1 mole of Hydrochloric concentration. Variables: Independent: Acid concentration (1mol dm-3, 2mol dm-3), Type of acid (Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric Acid). 1mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid, 2mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid, 1mol dm-3 Sulphuric acid. ...read more.

Middle

Trial 1 10 cm3/10 sec = 1.1cm3/sec 55 cm3/50 sec = 1cm3/sec Difference:-.1 cm3/sec Trial 2 26 cm3/10 sec = 2.6cm3/sec 66 cm3/50 sec = 1.320cm3/sec Difference: -1.28cm3/sec Hydrochloric acid (2 mol dm-3) Trial 1 50 cm3/10 sec = 5cm3/sec 71 cm3/30 sec = 2.367cm3/sec Difference: -2.633 cm3/sec Trial 2 55 cm3/10 sec = 5.5cm3/sec 87 cm3/30 sec = 2.9cm3/sec Difference: -.2.6cm3/sec Sulphuric acid (1 mol dm-3) Trial 1 26 cm3/10 sec = 2.6cm3/sec 69 cm3/50 sec = 1.3cm3/sec Difference: -1.3 cm3/sec Trial 2 27 cm3/10 sec = 2.7cm3/sec 69 cm3/50 sec = 1.3cm3/sec Difference: -.1.4 cm3/sec Looking at the results from the experiment and the calculations done to figure out what the rate of reaction was per second, we are able to see that the starting rate of reaction is greater than the rate of reaction halfway through the experiment. This is so due to the fact that in the beginning of the experiment there is more surface area and mass of magnesium, then halfway through the experiment which is lower. We are also able to come to the deduction that a concentration of 2 moles of Hydrogen Chloride is far more effective at reacting with Magnesium (in terms of time), then a 1 mole concentration of the same. Increasing the concentration will in turn increase the frequency of the collisions between the two reactants. ...read more.

Conclusion

What we should have done to create a more valid experiment was to use the same member for the job; this would still change the time, but would insure a better result. Evaluation: The main weakness of my experiment was the temperature change and the gas leakage. These were the most important changes that altered the results, although there really nothing we could do to improve the leakage we could have had a time of about 5 seconds after we dropped in the magnesium coil to closing the bong. This would not mislead the experiment and then we would have much better results (even though there was some leaking gas in the 5 second period). To control the temperature we should have used a Bunsen burner and heat the substance, thus having a temperature that would remain stable throughout the experiment, and also improve further our results. To make the experiment more interesting we could have Sulphuric acid of 2mol dm-3 this we would then be able to pose the question of which acid is stronger. Doing this can improve our knowledge of whether; an acid with a bigger molecular mass has a faster rate of reaction then an acid with a lower molecular mass. To further improve this investigation, we could also add another acid with an increased molecular mass. ?? ?? ?? ?? Science: Chemistry I.B Rate of reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric acid St. Dominics International School Raj Devraj 12CRF ...read more.

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