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Reactivity of Metals with Water and Acid

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Introduction

Lab Report Reactivity of Metals in Water and Hydrochloric Acid Student: Salma Youssef Partner: Professor: Due: Tuesday, September 25 Course code: SCH3U Introduction This report discusses an experiment to study the relationship of the physical and chemical properties of elements in groups and periods to the atomic structure of the elements. The objective of the experiment is to observe what happens when seven metals (magnesium, calcium, iron, lead, copper, aluminum, and zinc) are placed in water and/or hydrochloric acid. The hypothesis is that not all metals will react with the water and/or hydrochloric acid. This report presents the experiment?s procedures, results, analysis and questions. Purpose To observe relationships between the reactivity of elements and their location on the periodic table. Materials Part A: Reactivity of Metals in Water 1. 2. chemical safety goggles 3. 250 mL beaker 4. test tube (18 mm x 150 mm) 5. test-tube rack 6. scoopula 7. spark lighter 8. Bunsen burner clamped to a retort stand 9. test-tube clamp 10. pH paper 11. paper towel 12. small samples of 1. calcium, Ca(s) 2. magnesium, Mg(s) 3. copper, Cu(s) 1. wooden splint Part B: Reactivity of Metals in Hydrochloric Acid 1. 2. chemical safety goggles 3. 20 mL graduated cylinder 4. 4 test tubes (18 mm x 150 mm) 5. test-tube rack 6. scoopula 7. small samples of 1. magnesium, Mg(s) 2. iron, Fe(s) 3. zinc, Zn(s) 4. aluminum, AI(s) 1. dilute hydrochloric acid (0.5 mol/L) 2. spark lighter 3. Bunsen burner clamped to a retort stand 4. ...read more.

Middle

Very slow reaction. Few bubbles were produced. Though there was no observed reaction from the aluminum and the hydrochloric acid, further research shows that it does react. It releases heat and the water evaporates. Upon putting the magnesium in the hydrochloric acid, it quickly started to bubble and fizz. Throughout the observation, it also releasedlots of heat. Analysis The objective of the experiment was to observe what happens when seven metals are placed in water and/or hydrochloric acid. Calcium, magnesium, and copper were all placed in water and of the three, only the calcium reacted. Zinc, iron, aluminum, and magnesium were placed in the hydrochloric acid. There was a reaction in every test tube, but the magnesium showed the greatest reaction with iron being the least reactive to the acid. Even though the metals may be in the same period, how it reacts to the water or hydrochloric acid depends on the type of metal. Error(s) When the lit splint was held just above the mouth of the test tube with the magnesium, there was no reaction, unlike the high-pitched popping sounds emitted by other groups? experiments. Perhaps this is because the masking tape was removed from the mouth of the test tube minutes before the wooden splint was lit, giving the collected gas enough time to diffuse. A reason for the zinc and aluminum not reacting with the hydrochloric acid could have involved dirty glassware or the lack of time allowed for observation. Conclusion The purpose of this lab was to explore the patterns in reactivity in the periodic table. ...read more.

Conclusion

1. Evaluate this investigation. Did the design enable you to collect enough evidence to answer the questions? How could it have been improved? Would your suggested improvements raise any safety concerns? 1. The design was decent, but it did provide all the evidence needed to answer all the questions; a few of the questions required further research. I think the investigation could have been improved by writing clearer instructions and being more descriptive to avoid confusion. Also, students should be able to experiment with different metals to help them expand their understanding of the reactivity of metals in water and hydrochloric acid (this may raise a few safety concerns). 1. Predict what might happen if you were to drop a piece of potassium (or lithium) into a beaker of water. 1. Because potassium is an alkaline metal (lithium as well), it is extremely reactive. I predict that dropping it in water would cause it to react quickly and intensely, and produce hydrogen gas. 1. Connect the trends observed in Parts A and B to atomic radius, ionization energy, and electron affinity. Write a paragraph to explain the trends. 1. The elements moving from left to right across a period, the atomic radius decreases, as does the ionization energy(the nucleus of the atom gains protons).The atomic radius increases moving down a group, but the ionization energy decreases moving down a group (gains protons and new energy shells of electrons).And opposite to the ionization energy, electron affinities increase from left to right across a period. Electron affinities change little moving down a group, becoming slightly more positive. ...read more.

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