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Research Question Will increasing the temperature (C) of the rennin enzyme affect the rate of reaction (seconds) at which Pauls full cream milk solidifies?

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Introduction

High Level Chemistry Design Practical Investigate the effect of one factor on the chemical reaction of an enzyme Background Information Globular proteins which are called enzymes are produced inside the human body. Enzymes are organic catalysts which mean they have the role of speeding up chemical reactions. The role of enzymes is essential for most human body functions. Specific enzymes at specific locations within the human body attain specific abilities to aid chemical reactions. [1] In this experiment, the type of enzyme that will be used for testing is called rennin. Rennin is a type of enzyme that can be found in the stomach of humans and is produced by the stomach cells of humans. Rennin's specific enzyme ability is to transform milk into semi-solid particles. If milk was not coagulated (solidified), milk would just simply flow through the stomach and not be 'chemically' digested. [2] Normally, the human body temperature is 37�C and rate of reaction is most favourable at this temperature. [2] As with all enzymes, altering the temperature affects the rate of rennin and milk. According to the principles of Kinetic Theory, increasing the temperature would increase speed of particle collision and therefore increase the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

The tip of the spatula will be placed onto the milk. Gentle pressure will be put onto the spatula and if the milk is hard then the milk is therefore solid Materials * 15 � Test tube * Wooden tongs * 5 � Test tube rack * Permanent marker * 3 � Stop watches (� 0.01secs) * 0-110 �C Hot plate * 250cm3 beaker (� 25cm3) * 0-110�C Thermometer (� 0.01�C) * 10cm3 Measuring cylinder (� 0.01cm3) * Retort stand * 30cm3 of Rennin enzyme * Metal clamp * 100 cm3 of Pauls full cream milk * 10cm3 Volumetric pipette (� 0.01cm3) * 800cm3 distilled water * Plastic head for pipette * 2 � Metal spatula * 50cm3 Boiling tube Method Safety Precautions What Risk Safety Precautions Actions to take Attire Substance spill on clothes and skin Substance contact with eyes Burns from using hot plate Wear lab coats and ensure buttons are done up and sleeves are covering whole arm Wear goggles on at all time If substance spill onto the skin, wash it off immediately If substance gets into eyes, was eyes out using eye taps If skin is burnt due to contact with hot plate, leave it under cold running water for ...read more.

Conclusion

When the two substances are mixed, start timing on the stopwatch. 4. Continue step 2 - 3 for the remaining 2 test tubes which are labelled 25 5. Observe the physical state of the milk and record relevant qualitative data in 'Qualitative Data' table. When the milk nearly seems to be solid, use the other clean spatula to test if the milk is solid. Place the tip of the spatula onto the milk. Gentle put pressure on the spatula, if the milk is hard then the milk is solid. When the milk becomes solid, stop timing. 6. Record time shown on the stop watch onto the results table 7. Repeat steps 2 - 6 for the remaining independent variables - 30�C; 35�C; 40�C; 45�C. Ensuring that the temperature of the rennin enzyme is respective to the label of the beakers Note: If temperature of the enzyme is greater than what is needed for the specific test then remove boiling tube away from the hot plate - still ensuring thermometer is place inside it so that temperature can be observed Ensure that temperature of the milk is kept at 25�C for the whole experiment. This means, room temperature should not be adjusted during experiment as it might affect experiment results. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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