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Testing for halide ions. The objective of the experiment was: Be able to identify halides using silver nitrate and ammonia.

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Introduction

Activity: 15 Chemistry practical Jaspreet Kaur, IB1 Testing for halide ions Objectives: The objective of the experiment was: * Be able to identify halides using silver nitrate and ammonia. Equipment required: Silver nitrate solution, AgNO3 Dilute ammonia solution Concentrated ammonia solution Potassium chloride solution, KCl Potassium bromide solution, KBr Potassium iodide solution, KI Dilute nitric acid Solid A15 Solid B15 Distilled water Test tubes and stoppers Dropping pipettes and spatula Introduction: A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. A halide ion is a halogen atom bearing a negative charge. The halide anions are fluoride (F-), chloride (Cl-), bromide (Br-), iodide (I-) and astatide (At-). Halide compounds such as KCl, KBr and KI can be tested with silver nitrate solution, AgNO3. ...read more.

Middle

* Solutions of solid A15 and B15 were made by dissolving them in distilled water. * Then the solutions solids A15 and B15 were tested for the presence of the halide ions. Analysis of results: Observations: Potassium halide ion Addition of silver nitrate, AgNO3 KCl White precipitate KBr Cream pale precipitate KI Yellow(lemonish green) precipitate A15 Cream pale precipitate B15 White precipitate Original precipitate Addition dilute ammonia,NH3 Addition concentrated ammonia,NH3 AgCl precipitate dissolved to give a colourless solution No need AgBr Precipitate was almost unchanged, it did not dissolved Precipitate dissolved to give colourless solution AgI Precipitate did not dissolved Precipitate did not dissolved A15 Precipitate was almost unchanged, it did not dissolved Precipitate dissolved to give colourless solution B15 precipitate dissolved to give a colourless solution No need * Word and chemical equations of the reactions occurred: * Potassium chloride + silver nitrate? Silver chloride + potassium nitrate KCl + AgNO3? ...read more.

Conclusion

Now, I know the colours of the halogen! There was one problem with the experiment which was about colours; it was difficult to name the colours which were appeared after the reaction. For example: to give the name to KI that is Yellow (lemonish green) precipitate. But to find the unknown halogen, it was easy to match the colours to up with the name of the unknown halogen. This experiment can be improved by measuring the exact quantity of all the halogens and potassium halide ions. Also, if we do this experiment twice, then it would help students to learn more. If there will a colour chart for all the precipitates involved, then it would be easier and helpful for the students to do it, effectively. Conclusion: By adding different potassium halide ions in silver nitrate gives different colours. These colours are unique for every solution formed. Based on these colours two unknown halide ions were found. Further, to be sure about the unknown halide ions, dilute ammonia and if needed, concentrated ammonia was added in original precipitate. So, A15 has bromine ions and B15 has chlorine ions. ...read more.

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