• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

testing liquis for polarity

Extracts from this document...


IB CHEMISTRY TOPIC 4 - BONDING Testing Liquids for polarity Results and Observations: Liquids Results Shape of molecule or Lewis Structure Conclusions Distilled Water 4 cm of deflection The water molecule is very polar. This is because the only oxygen in the molecule is left with 2 lone pairs which give as a result an enormous negative center. On the other hand, the two H atoms are positive resulting into a very polar molecule. As a result, the stream of distilled water has a quite large deflection which almost went out of the beaker. Heptane 2 mm of deflection The deflection is very small, almost impossible to detect. Because of this we can conclude that this molecule is non-polar as no attraction towards the charged ruler is shown. Ethanol 3 to 4 cms of deflection In this case, the deflection of the stream is bigger and more obvious to human eye. As we can see in the structure of the molecule, the oxygen atom is left with 1 lone pair which makes it into a medium size negative center. ...read more.


Another factor is the presence of H and C atoms in both sides of the O atoms which balance the forces of the lone pairs. In conclusion, although it's a polar molecule, due to the position of the O atoms and the H and C atoms, Ethyl Acetate didn't deflected that much the stream Ethane-1,2-diol 4 to 5 cms of deflection This molecule is clearly polar because of the great deflection that is caused by it. There are two O atoms each one with a lone pair which creates a very powerful negative center which makes the molecule to be polar. Increasing Order of Polarity Downwards HEPTANE PROPANONE PROPANOL ETHYL ACETATE ETHANOL DISTILLED WATER ETHANE-1,2-DIOL ETHANOIC ACID Camilo Lovera Trujillo Testing Liquids for polarity Evaluation / Improvements: Limitations / Errors Improvements * Bad smell of substances. * Many of the substances we were working with, had a very strong and bad odor which spread all the way over the class. Due to this smell, many of the students found difficult to concentrate and to be able to record correctly the deflection of the streams. ...read more.


From the observations and results we can also conclude that the C atoms reduce the polarity of the molecules as they created positive center in the molecule. However, it was thanks to the O atoms n most of the molecules that their polarity was considerably increased as they were left with lone pairs which helped to create negative center even bigger than the positive ones and due to this, deflect more the streams. On the other hand, there's a final conclusion to be made and is about the order of the polarity. Acids are the most polar substances just after the amides. In the case of Ethanoic Acid, we can see that it makes part of the most polar substances tested in this experiment as a result of the H bondings and the presence of the 2 atoms of O. Going down the list we will find: Alcohols, Ketones, Aldehydes, Amines, Esters, Ethers and Alkanes. Camilo Lovera Trujillo Testing Liquids for polarity Bibliography for Images of Lewis Structure and Molecular Structures: * http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/molecules/heptane.gif * http://www.uni-saarland.de/fak8/schneider/anichem/struktur/ethanol.gif * http://www.fisicanet.com.ar/quimica/organica/ap1/propanol01.gif * http://www2.open.ed.jp/data/37561/01/1221system/images/CH3COCH3.jpg * http://scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/organic/images/ethanoicacid.jpg * http://www.steve.gb.com/images/molecules/alcohols/ethane-1,2-diol. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Dissolved Oxygen in water

    Record all your data onto a table and find averages for the titrations first and then find averages for the whole tank. This is vital in order to get more accurate results, more relevant data which will then help you make a valid conclusion.

  2. Kinetics of the Acid-Catalyzed Iodination of Propanone

    Concentration of Iodine in solution (m mol dm-3 ) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 1.0 + 1.1% 46.14 40.48 49.68 56.74 57.59 1.0 + 1.1% 26.72 24.80 24.52 30.27 21.50 1.0 + 1.1% 14.17 10.02 12.69 20.35 22.66 0.50 + 1.1% 08.23 22.80 73.73 24.22 21.28 0.25 + 1.1% 09.04 10.98 12.73 14.39 12.41

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    M X, Y or Z * Likely to be on the left side of the P.T * Likely to be metal * Likely to have a low electronegativity * Small First Ionization Energy (small 2nd , 3rd also) * Forms cations isoelectronic to a noble gas * Good Reducing Agent

  2. A Comparison of Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

    dissociated fully as it is a strong base. Thus, the concentration of NaOH(aq) will equals to the concentration of Na+(aq) and OH-(aq). Therefore, the concentration of OH-(aq) is 0.01M. Thus, Table 2.0: The theoretical pH values of H2SO4(aq), HCl(aq), HNO3(aq), and NaOH(aq)

  1. Atomic Structure Notes

    Different isotopes of an element have different masses, and so different masses in the mass spectrometer. If all the peaks in the mass spectrum come from ions with a single positive charge: * the mass/charge (m/z)

  2. The Polarity of a Compound. We also determined that Water (H2O), is the most ...

    share the same structure and the same source of polarity, that they should in fact have the same polarity. Our brief studies of the chemical theory should lead us to believe that CH3OH (methanol) and C2H5OH (ethanol) should have the same charge.

  1. Strong and Weak Acids And Bases

    + MgCl2 Table 7- Effect of Acid Concentration on Reaction Rate of Magnesium HCI Acid Concentration Volume of HCI � 0.01ml Rate of Reaction between Mg and HCI Observations 1.0 M HCl 2.00 Fastest Bubbles, foggy, H2 gas forming 0.1 M HCl 2.00 Slow Little bubbles, foggy, H2 gas forming

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    Nitrate and phosphate ions tested using colorimetry. (Phosphate ions can also be tested by adding lead nitrate). Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Total Dissolved Solids refers to the total mass of all solids dissolved in a specified volume of water. Usually freshwater systems such as rivers and lakes have much less concentrations of ions than oceans as these

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work