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The Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction

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Introduction

Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction -Magnesium and Hydrochloric Acid- Purpose: The aim for this lab is to evaluate the results of the reaction of Magnesium and hydrochloric acid, and to determine if changing the concentration of the acid will have an affect on the rate of reaction. Hypothesis: I hypothesize that a greater concentration of the acid will cause the rate to increase. Variables: -Independent: change of concentration of HCl -Dependent: The rate of reaction between HCl and Mg -Control: Temperature-if assumed room temperature stays constant, amount of Mg used through each trial, & total volume of the liquid for each trial. Materials: -50 mL beaker -stop watch -15 cm of Mg Ribbon -150 mL beaker -450 mL beaker -Graduated Cylinder -50 mL of 12M HCl -520 mL of water -weighing scale -ruler that measures in cm -stirring rod Procedure: 1. Obtain 15 mL of 12M hydrochloric acid using a graduated cylinder. 2. Now acquire 135 mL of water using graduated cylinders for a more accurate volume and pour into the 150 mL beaker. 3. Add the acid to the water and stir. 4. Now attain 15 cm of magnesium ribbon and measure the mass in grams. 5. Cut the ribbon into fifteen 1 cm pieces. 6. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 50 mL of the solution made in step 3 and pour into the 50 mL beaker. ...read more.

Middle

It showed a larger growth in time than the previous tests. -I now diluted further and again, the results showed a rather larger growth. The three trials were quite a deal less consistent than previous test. During this specific test I noticed that the pieces of Mg in the last two trials actually sunk to the bottom of the beaker. This was the first time they had done this throughout this entire experiment. -For my last test in this experiment I diluted even further and I noticed again, that the change in time from the previous tests was even more dramatic. I think this could be an example of exponential growth. During the first trial the piece of magnesium sunk to the bottom, but the last two did not. Data Processing: I will be use my data to find the concentrations of HCl for each test using the simple M1V1 = M2V2 formula that uses the first volume multiplied by the original concentration to equal the final volume multiplied by the new concentration. Since I added 15mL of 12M acid to 135 mL of water to use doing during my first test I will set up the formula as follows: (15mL)�(12M) = (135mL + 15mL) �(new concentration). Then I will just multiply and divide to get the answer: 1.2M Due to the fact that I used the same solution to make the rest of the test's solutions, the concentration found in this equation will be used in the remaining four calculations of the concentration of HCl. ...read more.

Conclusion

The following table will show the values I am going to use for the graph. (X) Concentration of HCl (Y) Rate 1.2M (Test 1) 0.00026 M/s 1.0M (Test 2) 0.000165 M/s 0.8M (Test 3) 0.000092 M/s 0.6M (Test 4) 0.000033 M/s 0.4M (Test 5) 0.0000133 M/s Conclusion: From my results in this experiment I can conclude that the higher the concentration the higher the rate will be. Based on this graph I also can assume that the data is exponential due to the curve of the values. However, I think there were errors in the experiment that were due to I wasn't able to measure the magnesium in its individual 1cm pieces of ribbon. I think that caused the rate to possibly be more of an estimation than it's actual. In my 4th test 1st trial the time it took for the magnesium to dissolve was remarkable different than the other two trials. I did not observe any difference than the fact the latter two trials had ribbon that sunk to the bottom of the beaker. I think that having the ribbon more emerged in the solution can cause there to be a decrease in time. Evaluation: I think a weakness in this experiment was I don't think I controlled enough variables. For example, if I had forced all pieces to be fully emerged like a few that happened in the end of the experiment, my data would have more consistent. ?? ?? ?? ?? Rachel Timmons ...read more.

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