• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide by titration against a standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide by titration against a standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate. Qualitative Data 1. Sodium hydroxide solution is colorless before titration 2. HCL is colorless before titration 3. The end result of the solution is slight pink 4. When the solution is off-shot the solution has a deep purple color 5. before reaching the endpoint the solution turns pink and then fades away as we swirl the conical flask 6. the color of phenolphthalein is colorless before titration 7. the color of phenolphthalein is slight pink after titration 8. a drop of the solution is left behind in the pipette 9. ideal color of the solution is fade pink Quantitative Data Table below shows the various volumes of chemicals that where used from their respected apparatus Apparatus / Chemicals used Reading taken from the apparatus Pipette solution (±0.06 cm3) 25 cm3 Burette solution (±0.02 cm3) 50 cm3 Phenolphthalein indicator 2 drops Standard C8H5O4K solution (±0.12 cm3) 250 cm3 Mean volume tittered 25.54cm3 Table below shows the number of trials taken from the NaOH solution from the burette and the intial and final values of the solution titrated No of Titration Trials (burette) Initial reading (±0.02ml) Final reading (±0.02ml) 1 0.09 ml 25.70 ml 2 0.1 ml 25.50 ml 3 0.09 ml 25.70 ml Table below shows the chemicals used and their concentration Apparatus / Chemicals used Concentration used Pipette solution (±0.06ml) ...read more.

Middle

The pipette completely drained the solution in the conical flask except only for a drop of solution to be left behind Evaluation 1. The NaOH solution was prepared by the lab technician of the concentration around 0.1M. The uncertainty in the error is unknown. This acts a drawback to our calculation and our experiment since we don?t know the amount of deviation the solution can have in its concentration. An improvement for this would be to use NaOH solution whose uncertainty is known so that we can calculate the error deviation in the final answer and hence be more precise and accurate in our calculation of the volume of NaOH solution titrated. 2. Distilled water used in preparing the sodium hydroxide solution was 99.9% pure. The impurities present in the distilled water could have added to the error calculation, hence increasing the deviation. In order to reduce the error inaccuracy distilled water with higher purity should be used. 3. An assumption is made that after the rinsing the burette and pipette with their respected solution there are no impurities left. This assumption could have added inaccuracies to the random error. Or another assumption that is the apparatus is clean and do not require rinsing could have also been made. Both of these assumptions stated above will lead to the reaction of the impurities with the respected solution hence consuming the moles and increasing the volume of the solution used to be titrated leading to an error in the calculation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Questions Q1.What effect would each of the errors described below have on the calculated value of the concentration of sodium hydroxide? 1. The burette is not rinsed with the sodium hydroxide solution 2. The pipette is not rinsed with the potassium hydrogen phthalate solution 3. The tip of the burette is not filled before titration begins 4. The conical flask contains some distilled water before the addition of potassium hydrogen phthalate. 1. If the burette is not rinsed with sodium hydroxide solution , there might be some impurities and when we add the sodium hydroxide solution , the molecules of the solution might react with the solution and hence will reduce the concentration of the solution 2. If the burette is not rinsed with the potassium hydrogen phthalate solution, there might be some impurities and when we add the potassium hydrogen phthalate solution , the molecules of the solution might react with the solution and hence will increase the concentration of the solution 3. If the tip of the burette is not filled , then a bubble remains in the tip of burette. This results in the solution taking a greater surface area in the burette and showing greater reading than the actual. So this will lead to decrease in the concentration because more volume will be used. 4. If the conical flask had some amount of distilled water before titration then more volume of the NaOH will be used to neutralize the acid , because the distilled water will dilute the acid, since more volume will be used the concentration of NaOH will reduce. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Aim: To determine the concentration of chloride ions in sea water by titration ...

    Carefully fill the flask with distilled water upto the 250cm3 mark, adding drop by drop as the bottom of the meniscus reaches the mark. 5) Close volumetric flask and mix diluted sea water thoroughly by inverting and shaking vigourously.

  2. Acid Base Titration Lab Report. The purpose of this experiment is to determine ...

    However, only the calculations of trial 1 will be shown in detail. The calculations for the other trials have been carried out in the same way and will be presented in tabular form. Question: Calculate the concentration of the Sodium hydroxide solution.

  1. Investigate the rate of reaction of luminol in various factors. The objective was to ...

    Weigh out 1g Na2CO3, 6g NaHCO3, 0.15g (NH4)2CO3, 0.1g luminol, 0.1g CuSO4 * 5H2O 2. Dissolve the solid in certain amount of water in a beaker. 3. Make up 250cm3 of solution with water to a meniscus. 4. Shake well before use.

  2. Limiting Reagent Lab. Purpose To ...

    Percent error and percent uncertainty of PbI2 The result of the experiment is accurate by 73%. The experimental value deviated from the theoretical value by 27%. Since percent uncertainty is smaller than percent error, the systematic error of the experiment is great.

  1. Determination of potassium hydrogen carbonate into potassium carbonate

    X 100 = � 0.5 % For trial 2: (0.1/ 21.700) X 100 = � 0.7 % The overall for KHCO3 is 0.5 + 0.7 = � 1.2 % As the mass was used from a range, for K2CO3 and KHCO3 from specified ranges of 2.5 - 3.0g and 3.25 - 3.75g respectively.

  2. The purpose of this lab experiment is to determine whether different ionic compounds containing ...

    At the very end, use a pipette to get a precise measurement and get 10.0 mL 6. Close the ethanol (evaporates quickly) 7. Pour the ethanol from the graduated cylinder into the Erlenmeyer flask 8. Add in the ionic compound 9.

  1. Aim: to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide by titration potassium hydrogen phthalate

    x 100% = 0.203% 2 (0.05/25.20) x 100% = 0.198% 3 (0.05/25.00) x 100% = 0.200% Concentration = no. of moles / volume Percentage error in concentration of NaOH in multiple trials Trial Percentage error in concentration of NaOH 1 Concentration: 0.00988/0.0246 = 0.402 mol dm-3 Percentage Error: 0.5% + 0.203% = 0.703% Concentration of NaOH:

  2. To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of Magnesium Oxide using Hess Law.

    parallax errors of different magnitudes could be introduced introducing unwanted random errors (inconsistent systematic errors). 5. Each time the electronic balance was used, it was appropriately tarred to prevent any zero errors. RAW DATA COLLECTION: The following tables contain all the raw data that was recorded in the lab while performing the experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work