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The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect varying temperatures have on the rate of reaction of magnesium (Mg) reacting with hydrochloric acid (HCl).

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Introduction

Investigation 6.2 Factors Affecting Rate Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect varying temperatures have on the rate of reaction of magnesium (Mg) reacting with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hypothesis: If the temperature of the hydrochloric acid (HCI) is increased then the rate of reaction with magnesium (Mg) will also increase because according to the collision theory, molecules must collide to react and increasing the temperature increases the motion of molecules thus increasing the collision per second. Therefore the greater the number of collisions per second the greater the rate of reaction. Since the collisions occurring depend on the kinetic energy of the colliding particles and temperature is a an average of kinetic energy of the particles and increasing the temperature will increase the average kinetic energy of the particles, thus there be a greater number of collisions per second and a greater rate of reaction (Brown et all, 2008). Variables: Independent Variables: * The temperature of the Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) o The varying temperatures of the Hydrochloric acid (HCl) (at 1M) will be 20�C, 30�C, 40�C, 50�C and 60�C. A thermometer will be used to measure the temperature of the hydrochloric acid solution (HCl). A water bath will be used to obtain the desired temperature of hydrochloric acid (HCl) Dependent Variables: * Rate of Reaction between Magnesium strip (Mg) and Hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) o The rate of reaction will be calculated by dividing the moles of Magnesium (Mg) (calculated by getting mass of magnesium strip and converting it into moles) ...read more.

Middle

18. Turn off the water bath. 19. Take the 50�5mL beaker containing 40mL hydrochloric acid out of the water bath (NOTE: If beaker is too hot use the beaker tongs to take out the beaker). 20. Pour the hydrochloric acid down the drain with water. 21. Rinse the beaker with tap water and dry using paper towel. 22. Repeat steps 6-21 for 2 more trials of the 20�C condition of hydrochloric acid solution. 23. Repeat steps 6-22 for 30�C condition of hydrochloric acid solution. 24. Repeat steps 6-22 for 40�C condition of hydrochloric acid solution. 25. Repeat steps 6-22 for 50�C condition of hydrochloric acid solution. 26. Repeat steps 6-22 for 60�C condition of hydrochloric acid solution. 27. Clean all materials and dispose any remaining magnesium ribbon, and pour any remaining hydrochloric acid down the drain with water. Observations: Table 1: Qualitative Properties of HCI solution and Magnesium strip before, during and After Reaction Magnesium Strip (Mg) HCI solution (HCI) Before * Shiny * Malleable * Solid * Grey colour * Smooth Surface * Odorless * Clear * Liquid During * Smokey * Fizzes * Bubbles produced After * Was completely reacted away * Clear * Liquid Table 2: Varying Temperatures of HCI, Mass of Mg strip and Time taken for reaction of Mg and HCI to complete Trial Target Temperature of HCI (�C) Actual Temperature of HCI (�0.5�C) Mass of Mg (�0.01g) Time taken for reaction to complete (�1s) 1 10 10.5 0.02 16 2 25 3 20 1 15 15.5 0.02 15 2 13 3 15 1 30 29.5 0.02 14 2 12 3 ...read more.

Conclusion

This decreases the amount of glycerin removed from graduated cylinder. Also by having larger graduated cylinder such as a 300�2.5mL, the marble could drop more easily as the diameter of the larger graduated cylinder is bigger than the smaller 100�0.5mL graduated cylinder. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of glycerin (say to 100mL for all trials) the marble travels through can help minimize the effect of losing glycerin. Another source of error in this experiment is that the marble touches the side of the graduated cylinder while it is traveling through the glycerin in some trials. When the marble hit the sides of the graduated cylinder it would increase the time it takes to travel through the glycerin as the sides of the cylinder would cause there to be more resistance while the marble is moving through the glycerin. This causes inaccurate measurement of time. To fix this issue, a bigger graduated cylinder with a bigger diameter (such as a 300�2.5mL) so the marble does not hit the sides of the graduated cylinder. This keeps the accuracy fairly the same as uncertainty only increases by around �2.0mL from the original 100�0.05mL graduated cylinder and also allows the marble to travel through glycerin without hitting the sides of the graduated cylinder. Since the diameter of the marble was 2.8�0.05cm and the diameter of the 100�0.05mL graduated cylinder was 3.1�0.05cm (measured using 30�0.05cm ruler), there is only a small margin of gap between graduated cylinder and marble. Thus, by having a 300�2.5mL graduated cylinder with a diameter higher than 3.1cm it increases the gap between marble and sides of graduated cylinder and decreases the chances of the marble hitting the sides. ...read more.

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