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Trends across group 2 elements

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Introduction

Trends across group 2 Instructions: The student is asked to investigate the trends across the group 2 elements. The apparatus of the experiment that was used is as follows: * 1 big test tube Rack * 6 Test Tubes * 6 Small Spoons * 1 small Pipette * 5 litmus pH Paper * 1 Hot Plate * 2 Graduated Cylinder * A Digital Balance * 3 Corks The chemicals used in the experiment: * Distilled Water (H2O) * Magnesium Oxide (MgO) * Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) * Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) * Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) * Calcium Nitrite (Ca(NO3)2) * Barium Chloride (BaCl2) * Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) * Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) * Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) * Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3) How the variables were controlled in the experiment: * Have good eyesight when recording the data. * Use the same materials. * Keep all equipment on same table The safety precaution in the experiment: * Be careful when handling the glass. ...read more.

Middle

10. Label each of the test tubes with Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH respectively. 11. Add 2 mL of the substances listed in step 10 to each of the matching test tubes. 12. Record the observations and data. 13. Repeat steps 8 - 9, and 11- 12 for calcium nitrite and magnesium sulfate. 14. Collect the chloride test tubes and put them in a beaker filled with water. Thermal Stability of the Carbonates 15. Confirm set up of the device. 16. Using the Bunsen burner, heat up the substance for around 5 minutes. 17. Observe and record the data. Data Collection and Processing: * When you go down the group, energy to remove electrons decrease. Also the number of electrons increase, the atomic radius increase. * The atomic radii increase as you go down since the number of electons in the outermost shell increase. ...read more.

Conclusion

Table 2: The Observations of Hydroxides, Sulfates, and Carbonates ------ Na2CO3 Na2SO4 NaOH BaCl2 A white chalky substance appears. A white chalky substance appears. A white precipitate is formed on the bottom Ca(NO3)2 A white chalky substance appears. The substance formed is clear A white substance is formed/ MgSO4 A white precipitate is formed on the bottom The substance formed is clear There is a white precipitate that is formed. As you go down the group, the hydroxides become soluble, while the opposite is true for the carbonates and sulfates. Conclusion and Evaluation: From the experiment, many trends were made based on the data collected. Trend include: As you go down the group, the hydroxides become soluble, while the opposite is true for the carbonates and sulfates. Some improvements that could be made iclude, improving stirring, better eyesite, better notes, more accurate equipment. Limiations icluded, not enough time, wrongly transferring data, bad eyesight. ?? ?? ?? ?? 5 ...read more.

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