• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Universal Gas Constant Lab. Aim: To determine the universal constant for gases by collecting gas from a neutralization reaction and determining the volume and pressure of the gas and then the partial pressure of the gas formed.

Extracts from this document...


Aim: To determine the universal constant for gases by collecting gas from a neutralization reaction and determining the volume and pressure of the gas and then the partial pressure of the gas formed. List of Apparatus: * Ruler � 0.1cm * Eudiometer Tube � 0.05cm3 * Beaker * Copper wire * Weighing Balance � 0.001g Trial Number Volume before Leveling / ml (� 0.05ml) Volume after Leveling / ml (� 0.05ml) Mass of Mg(s) used /g (� 0.001g) Temperature / oC (� 0.5 oC) Pressure / kPa 1 46.95 46.50 0.044 24.5 104.3 2 45.00 45.12 0.044 24.5 104.3 Quantitative Observations: Volume of HCl(aq) used = 10cm3 Concentration of HCl(aq) used = 3M Required Mass of Mg(s): Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) � MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) P(H20) (at 24C) = 3.0 kPa P(H2) = Ptotal - PH20 = 107.3-3.0=104.3kPa Volume of H2(g) = 45cm3 = 0.045dm3 Number of moles of H2(g) = (0.045/24) ...read more.


Conclusion: The literature value of the universal gas constant is 8.31 K-1 mol-1 and my value is 8.41 K-1 mol-1, which implies that the percentage error of my experimental gas constant is 1.2%. Under the conditions in which the experiment was performed, my results are acceptable because very little errors where encountered and the the percentage error is very small. Also due to the fact that the experiment was conducted under the same room temperature and pressure and the same mass of magnesium was used for each trial. A random error which I believe might have affected my result was the droplets noticed on the sides of eudiometer and this is an error because it's meant to just be the hydrogen gas present there, not the gas and the droplets. Evaluation: Errors, Observations during the Experiment Effect on the experiment / Explanation Concentration swirls observed during the reaction This is caused due ...read more.


An example of an impurity could be dust particles The magnesium ribbon gets smaller in size and looks cleaner This is because as the magnesium reacts with the acid, the metal turns into ions into the solution, thus the metal loses its mass Hydrochloric acid flowing out from underneath the eudiometer This is caused because hydrochloric acid is being displaced as the eudiometer is filled with hydrogen gas Incorrect readings taken This could lead to me having written down incorrect data which affected my final gas constant and led to my 1.2% error difference Improvement: * One major thing that I would do to improve the investigation would be to do more trials for the experiment, thus to reduce the random errors. * To clean the eudiometer very well, and ensure that there's as little as possible dirt and impurity present in the eudiometer. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Rates of Reaction Lab

    Clearly, the steepest curve is the curve for 3M hydrochloric acid and this again supports my hypothesis. Curves 1 and 2 illustrate the effect of concentration on 1M and 2M hydrochloric acid respectively. Curve 1 has the slowest rise thus with the smallest gradient.

  2. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    On the other hand, the distilled water being used, and with which the concentrated hydrochloric acid will combine with to form the necessary concentrations of hydrochloric acid solution, could contain some impurities like dissolved carbon dioxide. If some of the distilled water is acquired from different water tanks, or was

  1. IB IA: Determination of Heat of Neutralization

    57 HNO3(aq) + 1/2 Ba(OH)2(aq) � 1/2 Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) 57 3. From the above table, we can conclude that standard enthalpy change of neutralization for reactions between strong acids and strong bases is theoretically 57kJmol-1. 4. However, all the 5 experiments have shown a significant deviation in terms of the value for the standard enthalpy change for neutralization.

  2. The Enthalpy of Neutralization

    x 10.3= 258 Absolute Uncertainty = �258J --> Q= -2508J � 258J (�1000) [To change to kilojoules] Q= -2.51 kJ � 0.258kJ (�0.050mol H2O) [To find kilojoules per mole of water] Q = -50.2 kJ�mol-1 H2O (� 5.17 kJ�mol-1 H2O)

  1. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect varying temperatures have on ...

    completely disappears (meaning reaction is complete). 16. Record time taken for reaction to complete in observations table with uncertainty (�1s) 17. Record any qualitative observations of the hydrochloric acid solution leftover (No need for Magnesium as it had reacted fully and disappeared).

  2. Change of Potential Difference in Voltaic Cells Lab Report

    = 22.72% The percentage errors for the other copper sulfate concentrations cannot be calculated as there aren't any sufficient standard electrode potentials. Conclusion The purpose of this experiment was to examine the extent to which the use of different concentrations of copper sulfate solution can have on the potential difference in a Voltaic Cell.

  1. Faraday's Constant

    Sulphate * Used same solution for whole experiment * Surface Area of Electrodes * Cleaned thoroughly initially, however, no way of ensuring surface area does not alter as mass does Requirements: * water bath (30oC) * 100cm3 1.0M aqueous copper (II)

  2. To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of Magnesium Oxide using Hess Law.

    contact with Oxygen in the air so that it would be still be beneficial if the experiment were ever to be performed again in the future. Random errors in this experiment were also quite large with the error due to uncertainty in the stopwatch only one being negligible enough.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work