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Crude oil essay. In this paper I shall talk about crude oil being a valuable resource that will soon run out.

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Introduction

Crude Oil Introduction Crude oil is a resource that is essential in our society. Our lives virtually run on this fossil fuel and it is hard to imagine a world without it. Though due to the fact that fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy soon this shall be the case. In this paper I shall talk about crude oil being a valuable resource that will soon run out. Formation: Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon containing natural resources found underground. These natural resources were formed by the remains of animals and plants, also known as biomass, from over 150 million years; this is when the dead sea life and animals were buried under the sea bead. Over millions of years the biomass became covered in silt, sand, mud and other various products that slowly formed into sedimentary rock. The mass of sedimentary rock enables huge pressure to be exerted onto the biomass, this factor combined with the temperature and the fact that there is little to no oxygen and there is bacteria that aids to decay the remains of the animals and plants, causes the material to become oil or other fossil fuels. There are 3 main examples of fossil fuels, Coal, natural gas and crude oil. ...read more.

Middle

300-400 Lubricant for machines and engines Bitumen C50 upwards Above 500 Road surface and roofing Fractional distillation is started by putting crude in a fractional column and a furnace is placed at the bottom and it heats up the crude oil. Compounds with lower boiling points evaporate and rise to the top of the column and are collected there. In this image we see different parts of a refinery that are used to further convert fractions to gasoline, ethane and hydrogen. The fractional column is present with a reformer, alkylation unit, cracking units and a Coker. Once the crude oil has been fractionally distilled, the fractions (stated above in the table) can be converted into more useful chemicals by the processes known as cracking, using the reformer, the alkylation unit and a Coker. Cracking is used to break down large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones so that they change their state and become more useful. Cracking is generally used to break down oils into motor oil, jet fuel or diesel fuel as illustrated by the diagram. There are two main forms of cracking, thermal decomposition: where the long chains of hydrocarbons are heated till vaporized. ...read more.

Conclusion

Alternatives to polluting fossil fuels are being looked into, and are an upcoming field as researchers are only beginning to see how pollution is truly effecting our environment. Conclusion Crude oil, amongst other things is something we, as teens, take for granted. We do not think about how it is affecting the planet we only care that it helps to take us where we need to go. In writing this paper, I have realized how much money is put into producing this finite resource, and I am more aware of the processes used to refine crude oil and why hydrocarbons are so important in today's world. I have also drawn from this product how dependant the world is on crude oil and fossil fuels in general. The science behind this topic has made this an interesting theme to cover. WEBSITES http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/background.asp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/matter_energy/alternative_fuels/ http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/alkanes/cracking.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_fuel www.bbc.co.uk-( fractional distillation image) www.wikipedia.com-search: oil refinery, petroleum www.google.com-images-crude oil, fractional distillation http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/onlcourse/chm110/outlines/distill.html http://www.dit.ie/DIT/science/chemistry/rsccomp/competition00/distillation/topframe.html-( BP data table) www.howstuffworks.com-crude oil FOTOS http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/alternative_energy/fossil_fuel/natural_gas_basics.htm http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energy.cfm?page=oil_home-basics Books: How things work - national geographic: john Langone Explaining chemical processes 4th edition: Kenneth A. Solen I had help from Naveen das (my brother, University Cambridge, UK, reading 2nd year Chemical engineering) and Carmen Marin from the year above as well, as they both help with organization and explaining difficult concepts such as cracking. Priya Das 5.08.10 ...read more.

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