• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate water management strategies (excluding those directed at flood control).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe and evaluate water management strategies (excluding those directed at flood control). Over the past 60 years agriculture, industry and domestic use caused an increase of water use from 1000 cubic kilometers to 5000 cubic kilometers per annum. If current trends continue to increase, water shortage will affect 3.5 billion people, 48% of the world?s estimated population, by 2025. In order to prevent water stress to such great extend, measurements and strategies of irrigation and agriculture, freshwater wetland, groundwater and damns and reservoirs were established. Dams and reservoirs certainly are one of the most important water management strategies. The barrier placed across the river Nile and the artificial store that lies right behind the dam together make the Aswan Dam, lying south of the city Aswan in Egypt. Hydroelectric power generation is water being stored behind the dam that drives the turbines and accounts for 45% of Egypt?s energy needed. Moreover, the dam provides water to crops during dry seasons, in times of drought or water scarcity and has irrigated an estimated of 3.4 million hectares of land, which lead to an increasing profit of Egypt?s economy. ...read more.

Middle

can only be used as long as they are given enough time to recharge from a well after it has been exploited or if it is recharged artificially by pumping rainwater, for example, into it. However, groundwater pollution and depletion have immense consequences as agriculture poisons groundwater with the use of fertilizers and pesticides, industry with chemicals and metals, domestic households with products like shampoo. In addition, recharging basins artificially with saltwater, make them useless for human consumption. Over-exploiting groundwater basins when there is drought leads to no more groundwater to rely on and there is a higher risk of crop failure. Also, if too much groundwater is removed, the ground might sink down, like it happened in Mexico City. Even though, groundwater is very usable for human use, a balance between exploitation and recharging has to be found without polluting and destroying the groundwater reservoirs. Apart from dams and groundwater reservoirs, freshwater wetlands have to be managed well as they have fundamental ecological functions. Wetlands are areas of land, which are full of moisture mostly or always throughout the year. The Kissimmee River located in central Florida, USA was a river with a length of 200 kilometers. ...read more.

Conclusion

Moreover, irrigation often leads to an increase of salinization as the Aral Sea, on the border of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, started to irrigate the desert surrounding it in 1960 and by 2007 the salinity changed from 10 grams/L at the start to 100 grams/L, whereas normal seawater has a salinity of 35 grams/L. The problem of the rapidly increasing salinity destroyed the sea?s ecosystem and crops being planted nearby as storms would take the masses of salt left in the ?Aral Sea? and carry them on. Although irrigation systems have negative sides, it is a very good strategy if they are managed well. To conclude, these four strategies established to manage water better, all connect to each other and can only work if all other strategies are being thought of when one is being used, as wetlands, for example, mustn?t be destroyed as they are very helpful in recharging groundwater. Most often, the case of over-exploitation and inconsideration of consequences lead to destructions of ecosystems, as water is the main part of them. These strategies will have to balance themselves and humanity will have to look at the rate of water extraction and the actual consumption, in order to make a difference. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Geography essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Aral Sea

    5 star(s)

    A loss of biodiversity means that humans are losing animals that could serve as biocontrol agents and plants that could potentially provide crop varieties. Furthermore, humans are losing potential sources for drugs that could cure existing or future diseases such as cancer.

  2. Desertification of Sahara and Gobi desert

    both Arabs looking for gold from Sudan and Europeans looking for slaves from West Africa. The two influences merged with native ones, creating a culturally complex area. The Sahel is widely French-speaking, Islamic and takes its name ("shore") from Arabic.

  1. Case study on Aral Sea

    the surroundings During the last five to ten years the drying of the Aral Sea, has bought many changes in the climate conditions. Before the drying of the Aral Sea it was a regulator mitigating cold winds from Siberia and reducing the summer heat.

  2. Coasts and their management

    and the gravitational pull of the sun and moon. The superficial undulations (Wellenformen) of the water surface produced by the wind blowing over the ocean are called wind waves. Small circular movements in the wind produce minor (unbedeutende) undulations in the water surface, and some of these are reinforced (verst�rkt)

  1. Foreign Talent-Dilemma in Singapore. as we shall explain, illustrate and seek to convince in ...

    During the economic downturn, they were particularly worried these foreigners would be willing to work harder for less, putting pressure on them to work longer hours at the expense of a quality life-style. 44. Some Focus Group participants felt that each time they got closer to the "Singapore dream", the goal posts would shift, and be moved further away.

  2. Is the introduction of foreign talent in Singapore beneficial to Singaporeans?

    is because there is a pressing need for labour. With the birth rate still languishing and hovering around or below the replacement rate, the government's options is to import even more foreign talent and/or to raise the retirement age so that workers in Singapore can still contribute another 5 years or more.

  1. Study of Agricultural Systems

    From the 1950s, on, many areas of the Great Plains have become productive crop-growing areas because of extensive irrigation. The southern portion of the Great Plains lies over the Ogallala Aquifer, a vast underground layer of water-bearing strata dating from the last ice age.

  2. The coastline of the resort of Sitges is being effectively managed

    The nightclub is used a lot for tourism and lies on the western edge of the Sitges coastline as can been seen in the map above figure3, needing to be protected to encourage tourism. Also with the railway line running immediately behind this, linking Barcelona to Sitges and another way of bringing tourism in.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work