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Evaluation of the industrial revolution

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Introduction

In order for the industrial revolution to occur, manufacturers needed raw materials such as cotton, produced by slave labour on the plantations of the southern US. American cotton was crucial to the growth of the British & American textile industries. Slaves working on an American cotton plantation in the early 1850s, produces the raw material of early industrialization. Even though the British abolished the slave trade in 1807, and the US forbade Southern planters to trade in slaves the same year, slavery persisted for another 56 years. Once the Civil War ended, slavery & the plantation system collapsed in the US, and British manufacturers turned to Egypt & India for raw materials, thus expanding the global reach of the industrial economy. Cotton grown by slaves in the American South fueled industrial revolution. In US, beginning in the last decade of the 18th C, textile factories sprang up along rivers throughout New England. The industrial revolution that began in England and spread to the US and continental Europe by the 1840s and 1850s had tremendous effects around the world. ...read more.

Middle

One way to do this is build overseas empires in undeveloped parts of world rich in natural resources?imperialism. EG: British North American & Carribean colonies, sources of tabacco and ctoon. France?s colonies in Indochina, sources of silk. Belgium conquered rubber in Congo By the end of 19th C, other countries joined roster of those that had experienced ID. (Sweden?s industrial revolution, like Japan?s & Russia?s, occurred late in 9th C). Russia?s ID ocured more slowly. Eg while B and US wer industrializaing, Russia remained a predominantly agricultural society that relied on West for imported manufactured goods. Two things happended in second half of 19th C: Emancipation of Russian serfs in 1861=large no of rural folk free to work in large cities Secondly: massive railway building in the 1870s allowed R to exploit its immense natural resources of coal and iron more efficiently. Factories such as Moscow and St Persburg appeared. (Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, when workers protested harsh factory conditions and dprivation during WW1) Japan also industrialised around same timea s Russia, beginning in 1860s and 1870s Like Russia, J benefited form support of gvmt in building railroads, crucial to transporting natural resources & creating national market for manufactured gods. ...read more.

Conclusion

Conclusion Positive Negative produced tremendous wealth for middle-class employers at top of society but also threw into dramatic relief the gulf that separated rich from poor, accentuated divisions between employers and workers New inventiosn & technical processes made production of affordable goods & paved way for mass consumption Clothes Before ID, rich aristocrats & wealthy members of middle class buy clothing ready-made or made to order from dressmakers & tailors. Expensive. Ordinary pl made clothing at home. Dvlpmnt of new machinery powered by steam in early 1800s in England & US revolutionzed clothing production. Railways and bridges New ways of processing iron made possible (above heading) benefited middle and working classes. Wealth created by industrialzaiton filtered down to workers. Overall, worker?s wages increased during course of 19th C. Living standards also improved as higher wages give beter diet& purchase more consumer goods (clothing & furtniture). Middle-class reformeds convined municipalities to clean up industrial cities, improving housing improving living standards. Building of public libraries. Hence: invention of new production processes, new means of transportation, rising living standards, and expansion of leisure are some of benefits. Poverty, unequal pay and explotation of workers Social inequalities, pollution ...read more.

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