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Sao Paolo

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Introduction

Geography PROJECT Population and Demographics Sao Paulo Sanym Paritova 1. Growth rate tables over time Year Population (million) Growth rate (annual %) Urban area (km�) Growth rate (annual %) 1930 1.0 - 130 - 1950 3.0 5.6 420 6.0 1965 6.5 5.3 550 1.8 1980 12.5 4.5 900 3.3 1987 14.2 1.8 1,523 7.8 1991 15.2 1.8 n.a. n.a. 1994 16.0 1.8 n.a. n.a. There is a table where we clearly see how does population grew over the time. We can see that in the beginning population was growing faster then in the end of XX century. The demographic boom was between 1965 and 1980, when population become bigger almost for twice. Also the table shows growth of urban area and its annual growth rate. 2. Population (age - sex) pyramids The population of Sao Paolo is 40.9 million people, 93.7% in urban areas. Sao Paulo's and Brazilian population are directly related to its decrease in fecundity and increase in longevity. Such tendencies cause a population aging process which will result a domination of adults in the future of Sao Paulo's populational aging tendencies have been even stronger than those observed in the country, since the State's base of the age pyramid of the population is narrower than Brazil's. 3. ...read more.

Middle

But "racial democracy" is a myth. There is a very strong relationship between color of skin and higher income, education and social status. Few black population gain positions of wealth, prestige, and power, except in the arts and sports. The majority of the Whites of the state is of Italian, Portuguese and German descent. The Mulattoes are a mixture of Europeans with the Blacks and Amerindians, varying from light to dark complexion. The Blacks are of African descent. 7. Workforce Year Economically active population (000s) Unemployed (000s) Unemployment rate (%) 1985 6,415 795 12.4 1986 6,665 647 9.7 1987 6,871 666 9.7 1988 6,933 652 9.4 1989 7,100 596 8.4 1990 7,285 809 11.1 1991 7,553 899 11.9 1992 7,784 1,253 16.1 1993 7,948 1,224 15.4 Trends in employment and unemployment in Sao Paulo between 1985 and 1993 reflect those in Brazil as a whole (table above). After the difficulties of the early 1980s, rates of unemployment had fallen down in the 10 year time, but rise rapidly during the 1990s. By 1992, there were more than 1.2 million unemployed people in the city, 16 per cent of the economically active population. The proportion of the labour force that was self-employed rose from 16 per cent in 1986 to 21 per cent in 1993. ...read more.

Conclusion

Fortunately, the pace of growth slowed during the 1980s and the forecast of 19 million inhabitants by 1990 was well wide of the mark. A halving of the annual growth rate of some 250,000 people per annum meant that the city had only 15.2 million inhabitants in 1991. Annual growth in the 1980s had averaged 1.9 per cent compared to 4.5 per cent in the 1970s. One reason for this slowing in growth is the dramatic fall in fertility in the country. In the early 1950s, the average woman bore 6.2 children in her lifetime, in the early 1980s only 3.5. Brazil's population growth rate fell from 3.7 per cent per annum in the 1970s to 1.9 per cent during the 1980s. A further reason for the marked slowing in S�o Paulo's population increase is the changing pattern of migration. Even if the authorities are helped by the slower rate of demographic growth, the city's population will continue to grow. It will take an enormous effort to address the needs of these additional people as well as those of the people who were neglected during the lost decade of the 1980s. Such an effort will be helped if the economy begins to grow once again, but, even if it does, one major policy change is vital: more tax resources must be shifted from the State of S�o Paulo and from the nation to the municipal authorities. Without larger fiscal transfers the prospects for the city look bleak. ...read more.

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