• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Turkmenistan case study

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Identify the ways in which water is utilised at the regional scale By using Turkmenistan as an example I will discuss the ways in which water is utilised at the regional scale. To start off, Turkmenistan just recently became independent (1991) of the Soviet Union. This country is covered by the Karakum Desert, but nevertheless, has a large amount of natural gas reserves making it very attractive to other nations, such as Russia. Although this is a great advantage for Turkmenistan, this country suffers from water scarcity. Today, one of the main reasons of why water in Turkmenistan must be managed carefully is because of the large amount and importance of farming, for both the people and the economy. In 2006, 20% of the country's GDP was contributed by agriculture, and 48% of the workforce was the employment of agriculture. Nevertheless, only 4.7% of the country's land is used for farming. Turkmenistan has a very arid climate, meaning that irrigation is necessary for almost all the land that wants to have the potential to cultivate. By far, the most important crop in Turkmenistan is cotton which requires a large-scale irrigation. Despite the high cost of irrigating the desert to grow cotton, the government sees its potential and is expanding the area of cotton plantations. In 2007, the government announced that 100,000 hectares of land would be treated and cultivated at an estimated cost of $US74 million. To achieve this goal, 3,200 km of irrigation and channels will be dug, affecting even greatly the scarce water resources which are already in high demands in Turkmenistan. ...read more.

Middle

The consequences of this increase will be that some parts of the world will no longer manage to irrigate their land, causing them to run out of food. The greatest problem is that the supplies of water are unevenly distributed, even within countries. The United Nations (UN) made estimates that by the year 2025, two thirds of the world's population will be living in countries which have stress on their water supplies. The greatest inconvenience is that between 2000 and 2025 global industrial water will double and water used for agriculture, which is 70% of all water use, will increase by between 50% and 100%. Most of this increase in demand of water supplies will be done by the developing countries (LEDC's) as their industrial and population growth is supposed to increase at a faster rate. This shows the difference between physical water scarcity and economical water scarcity. Physical water scarcity occurs in places where the demand for water exceeds the supply and is most common in arid and semi-arid areas where water is very scarce because of very little rain fall and because of fluctuations of river flows or even rivers drying up during certain times of the year. On the other hand, economic water scarcity occurs when water is indeed available but, because of poverty, people are not able to obtain it. This is very common in LEDC's, mostly in urban areas where poor people live in shanty settlements. ...read more.

Conclusion

Third, for more than a billion people in developing countries, water is scarce and frequently contaminated, causing a health risk. In these parts of the world, contaminated drinking water along with primitive or nonexistent sanitation systems annually result in widespread illness and millions of deaths annually. The majority of the victims are children. In developing countries, people (usually women and children) often must walk long distances to find water. These village women from Pakistan's southern Sindh province embark on a water search, carrying traditional earthenware pots in addition to their small children. With 40 percent of the world's population facing water scarcity and some examples of these countries are Burkina Faso, Nepal or Honduras. In Burkina Faso one of the main problems confronting all citizens is insufficient drinkable water sources. This means that women must go get water for their families during most of the day, which restricts their ability to perform other necessary tasks. In Nepal, most of the countries' 20 million people have no water, no electricity, and limited access to health facilities. Women spend much of their time walking narrow paths in treacherous terrain to the nearest water source. The hike for water is difficult because some women must carry 50-pound jugs full of water for a long period of time. In Honduras, more than 81 percent of families have no access to drinkable water, electricity, or schools. We can come to the conclusion that since water is so important in our lives that the search and transport of water still takes over most of many peoples daily life time. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Geography essays

  1. Desertification of Sahara and Gobi desert

    The Gobi Desert and Great Green Wall of China The Gobi desert is located partly in the north of China and partly in the south of Mongolia; it is not a typical desert. Gobi is covered by rocks and by snow in the winter; the conditions are very severe with

  2. Foreign Talent-Dilemma in Singapore. as we shall explain, illustrate and seek to convince in ...

    A global outlook should be promoted and encouraged in both schools and workplace, through student exchanges, international seminars and exchanges, overseas visits and establishment of international relationships. Attracting Talent 84. Bringing out the best in our people and for our country means managing our talent and attracting new ones.

  1. Case study on Aral Sea

    The Aral Sea provided moisture to form clouds and rain. 1) Hot dry air removes any remaining moisture from the sea and the surrounding area 2) No cooling effect as water body is now too small.No moisture for rainfall Climate statistics for Khiva, Uzbekistan Table 1:Shows Climate Statistics for Khiva

  2. Geography Field Study - Delineating the CBD Antwerp

    Sampling has various benefits, many of which are largely discussed in Barnaby Lenon's "Fieldwork Techniques and Projects in Geography".5 MAP4PARKING Analysis: The map on the previous page allows us to see that indeed the distribution of parking prices is regular.

  1. Coasts and their management

    Wave energy (E) is proportional to the square of the wave height (H), and directly proportional to the wave period (T), using the formula E ? LH�. In other words, a 4 metre high wave has 16 times more energy than a 1 metre wave, assuming the same wave length.

  2. Shanty Case Study

    When it rains, paths become flooded with water, sometimes, with contaminated river water. See Figure 9. c >>This street here can be seen flooding with rainwater. This water can contain harmful, disease-causing bacteria of human waste. The bacteria can contaminate the food and water people consume and use.

  1. Geography Course Work

    still a correlation between wind speed and percentage of vegetation cover, just not on this site. There were also various problems and limitations to the method used to calculate the wind speed, by using such a simple method, the results are harder to understand.

  2. Climate changes in Canada. What consequences derive from the climate change in Canada ...

    Newfoundland, another low-lying region, is gradually subsiding. Since the sea level is increasing, floods are increasingly threatening. Furthermore, inner cities, such as Saint John, may flood on a more regular basis during storms. In a continuance of floods, the salt water may get into the groundwater aquifers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work