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Urbanization and Settlement

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Problems and Consequences of Urbanization in the Contemporary World (a) The main change in the location of the worlds top 20 most populous cities between the 50 years (from 1950-2000) is the change in countries which these cities are located in. In the year 1950 most cities (65%--13 out of 20 countries) were located in economically more developed countries (such as USA, Mexico, European nations, and Japan). However in the year 2000 the majority of the cities (80%--16 out of 2o countries) were located in economically less developed countries and NICs (such as Brazil, Argentina, India, China, Philippines, and Indonesia). Countries such as Argentina, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan, Egypt which were not one of the top most populous cities in 1950 but are predicted to be in the year 2000 are also ELDCs which again fit into the trend that the top 20 cities that are the most populous are shifting from EMDCs to ELDCs. This trend is also strengthen by the fact that in 1950, there were 7 out of 20 cities in Europe however the prediction for the year 2000 did not include any of the previous 7 cities within the ranking. ...read more.


This is not because the population within these cities dropped greatly in number, but because the number of population in these cities remained constant as other countries (ELDCs) kept increasing. It is said that the more developed a country is, the slower the population growth rate. For example the population growth rate of india in the year 2000 was 1.58% as oppsed to Japan which was 0.18%. EMDCs are more so approaching stage 4 or 5 on the demographic transition model which states that the population does not change by much. This means that as population in ELDCs grew, the population of the EMDCs started to stabilize, Thus the cities of EMDCs were kicked off the list for the top 20 more populous cities. Another reason is as countries develop, more of the country becomes appealing to live in. thus people who may have migrated into the city during the 1950s may migrate back out into the periphery because of the overall development of the country. For example, it is not only in the cities where they have good education, healthcare, transportation and job opportunities. Thus in some cases there was a case of counter-urbanization. ...read more.


This resulted in a high number of populations within the city of Seoul still today. This is because it is impossible to suddenly move the core of a country to other cities, and have people migrate out of Seoul in hope to decrease the problem of over population within Seoul. This is because in present times as well, more has advances within Seoul then the periphery. For example health services are more highly regarded in Seoul than it is in other countries. Also, education is more values within Seoul. Many of the top ranked high schools and universities are located within Seoul which again keeps attracting people to live in Seoul. Although the Governments will is to redistribute the population of South Korea more evenly, because of the circumstances (difference in development in core and periphery) this has been unsuccessful. There are few consequences to the mass number of people in the city. One problem is overpopulation within the city. As a general trend, we can conclude that overpopulation causes many problems for a city such as congestion, and higher crime rate. This then becomes a growth pole, and continues growing, with most investment and growth focusing on that city at the expense of the periphery. Therefore, the primate city continues growing, while other cities' growth stagnates or stays the same. ...read more.

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