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Group 4 project

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Introduction

Electricity: Electrostatics: * Not moving charges. * Material like amber, when rubbed, can move small objects * The technical term is that the 'balloon' or likewise, is electrically charged * There are two types of charge: - positive - & negative * if we are looking at atoms, protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged * An object that is not charged is referred to as neutral. * A neutron has no charges * In most situations we don't look at atoms, we look at whole objects * If an object has more electrons that usual it will be negatively charged. * If it has less electrons, it will be positively charged. * In most cases we can use friction and rub electrons from one object to another to charge it. * It is important to note: - electrons do the moving, NOT protons - the charge doesn't last long due to interactions with air - it is not restricted to solids * electrostatic precipitation - in chimneys. Smoke and dust are ionized and stick to the metal plates in a chimney * the basic technique of charging small particles is how photocopiers work Charging an object * can be easy or hard depending on the conductivity of the object. ...read more.

Middle

* Electrons are very small. * The charge on one is 1.6 x 10-19 C. * So 1C is the amount of charge you get from 1/ 1.6 x 10-19. * IC is the charge on 6.25 x 1018 * Sometimes we don't use joules either, we use the electron-volt * 1eV is the energy an electron gets when made to move by a 1V potential. * 1eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J * i.e. an electron that accelerates through 1.5V will lose 1.5eV of potential energy but gain 1.5eV of kinetic energy. Precise Definition: The electric potential at a point in an electric field is the amount of work that would be done in bringing a positive test charge from infinity to that point. * Electric work: W = qV * The F here is Felec = kq1q2 / r2 * So Fr = (kq1q2 / r2) x r * = kq1q2 / r * and Fr = qV, so... * kq1q2 / r = qV * V = kq2 / r * Where 'r' is the distance between the two charges. CIRCUITS * Key concept: * Current = rate of flow of charge * Voltage = energy of charge * q = ?I ?t * for a circuit to work we need: - a path for the charge to travel along - a field to get the charge to move i.e. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Voltmeters have very large resistances so that they don't "steal" any of the current * Easy to kill ammeter, hard to kill voltmeter POWER * POWER = ENERGY / TIME * Measure in watts * Electrical energy = qV * q = It * therefore P = ItV / t = IV * P = IV * E = VIt The KiloWatt - hour * Electricity companies don't use joules to measure energy use. * 1kW-h = 1000 x 60 x 60 * = 3, 600, 000 * = 3.6MJ VOLTAGE dividers * voltage dividers are used in LOTs of places. From dimmer switches to sensor systems. Recall from our knowledge of parallel circuits R (?) R (?) RT (?) 100 100 50 100 10,000 99 100 1,000,000 99.99 The bigger one resistor is than the other, the closer the total resistance is to the lowest resistor. A voltage divider uses this property. To examine the circuit we just ignore the "something useful" part of the circuit --> ignore the bigger voltage. SENSORS * streetlights are a good example of the use of a voltage divider & sensor * a change in environment is what drives the sensor * e.g. colder = makes a heater more conductive Power shortcut P = VI V = IR P = IRI = I2R P = I2R P = VV / R P = V2 / R ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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