Investigating Calories in an Apple
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Alexander Zouev Physics IB HL 7/05/06 GROUP 4 PROJECT Umbrella topic: Heat. Subtopic: Heat and an Apple Physics Lab: Investigating Calories in an Apple Aim: To measure the amount of Calories in a fresh average-sized apple, a dry apple ringlet, and an oven-dried apple ringlet using a Calorimeter. Theory: All foods including apples have energy within them. Our human bodies can convert this stored energy that's found in the foods (calories) and convert it into chemical energy which we use and need to do work. A calorie can be defined as "the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water 1 degree Celsius (Cº)". The word calorie gets its origins from Latin as the word "calor" actually means "heat" (our umbrella topic!) in Latin. All foods have a specific calorific value - a hamburger has many Calories, a carrot has much less. When calories are written with a capital C, as they mostly are on packaging, it means they are in fact kilocalories (there are 1000 calories in a kilocalorie). A simple way to measure the energy or the calorific value found it foods is by using a calorimeter.
Be patient so that you get a good reading. Record this reading in the table viii) One the apple piece has cooled enough, weight it once again and record this and the difference between the two weights in the table. ix) Repeat steps ii - viii expect using the dry apple ringlet, and the oven dried apple ringlet. Don't forget to refill the water and allow enough time for the calorimeter to cool. x) Safely remove the Bunsen Burner and bring all apparatus to its original location. Data collection: Raw data table 1: Apple Dry Apple Oven + Dry Apple Initial weight 3.7 grams 3.7 grams 3.7 grams Final weight 0.8 grams 1.8 grams 2.7 grams Initial temperature 24.2º C 24.4 º C 25.1º C Final temperature 24.7º C 26.3 º C 28.1º C ? Weight 2.9 grams 1.9 grams 1 gram ? Temperature 0.5º C 3.0 º C 1.5º C Data Analysis: Data analysis table for apple APPLE Apple ? Weight : 2.9 grams Water ? Temperature: 0.5 º C Specific heat capacity of water: 1 calorie / gram º C Energy = 2.9g 1 0.5º C = 1.45 calories 2.9 grams 100 grams Avg.
Although we expected maximum activity to be around room temperature, it became evident towards the end of the experiment that this was not the case. Highest fermentation occurred around 40 degrees, and practically none around 0 degrees. It was very surprising how closely linked all of our experiments were and how a person in one experiment could help out a person in another group 4 experiment. For example the chemist carefully explained to the physicist that the process of combustion produced the white and black charcoal on the burnt apple parts. Also the physicist suggested a better - more mathematical, method for observing how to measure the amount of germination by actually counting the seeds that germinate at hour intervals and measuring their tails. Also all departments shared their wide range of knowledge about different scientific apparatus that, at the start of the Group 4, was unknown to them. For example by the end of the day my entire group knew how to use a Venire scale ruler, a clamp stand, and an electronic thermometer attached to a graphic calculator. Needless to say, almost all the experiments required more than one set of hands, and each person got involved in way or another with another persons experiment.
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