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# Investigating Hydrated Crystals.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Hydrated Crystals Our unknown sample is Unknown A, which is theoretically CuSO4 .5H2O. Table 1: Raw Data Quantitative Observations Mass (g) Uncertainties Mass of crucible 45.74 � 0.02 Mass of crucible + 3g of hydrated salt 48.72 � 0.02 Mass of hydrated salt 2.98 � 0.04 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #1 47.97 � 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #2 47.88 � 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #3 47.77 � 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #4 47.75 � 0.02 Mass of anhydrous salt 47.75 � 0.02 Qualitative Observations: When the beaker was covering the evaporating basin on the hot place, it had water vapour lined on its inside. The colour of the salt becomes lighter - from blue crystals and a mixture of lighter blue and white crystals. The texture after the heating appeared to look like ash, suggesting that it was dryer. ...read more.

Middle

compound to Moles of water in hydrated compound: 1 : 4 Predicted formula for anhydrous compound: CuSO4 .4H2O Uncertainty for Moles of anhydrous compound: (0.08/ 2.06) x 100 = 3.88% (3.88/ 100) x 0.013 = 0.0005 Moles of hydrated compound 0.0130 � 0.0005 Uncertainty for Moles of water in hydrated compound: (0.04/ 0.92) x 100 = 4.35% (4.35/ 100) x 0.051 = 0.002 Moles of water in hydrated compound 0.051 � 0.002 (c) Determine the percentage of water in the hydrated crystals Percentage of water in hydrated crystals (0.97 / 2.98) x 100 = 32.55% Uncertainty of Percentage of water in hydrated salt: (0.04/0.97) x 100 = 4.12% (0.04/2.98) x 100 = 1.34% 4.12 + 1.34 = 5.46% (5.46/ 100) x 32.55 = 1.78 � 2 Percentage of water in hydrated salt: 33� 2% (d) Calculate the percentage of water obtained from the formula. What is the error? Formula: CuSO4 .5H2O Ratio - 1:5 Percentage of water: 1 + 5 = 6 (5/ 6) ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore, there is a major error within this experiment. This could be caused by the lack of time to finish the experiment, ending up with not enough time to finish heating the compound. The fourth heating was a lot shorter than what it was meant to be (10 minutes), and so not all the water has been vapoured out of the compound, causing major uncertainties within the values recorded. Evaluation: Errors Implications Improvements Not enough time to finish heating all the water. Affects the results, causing major errors. Extend the experiment or do it again another time Changing the level of heat of the hot plate. Affects heating rate, heats water more efficiently. Do not change the level of heat of the hot plate. Not having repeated trials. Does not have as accurate results. Repeat the experiment an extra few times to improve the accuracy of results. ?? ?? ?? ?? Justin Yeo Chemistry Dr Badran -1- ...read more.

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