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Waves and friction

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Introduction

? Aim "To investigate if the performance of a swimmer is affected by the waves occurring in the swimming pool from other swimmers?" Background knowledge A wave is a periodic disturbance whereby energy is conveyed from one place to another in a medium without the transfer of matter. In this experiment of ours the main properties that will affect the swimmer are; Amplitude Wave length and frequency. We say this because the higher the amplitude the more the energy the wav possesses and the aster the frequency the more momentum the wave has at the wave front. Thus with this I mind we hypothesize: "The performance of a swimmer is directly influenced by their interaction with waves" We first got our idea of our investigating after observing the waves produced by a swimmer and a boat. The frontal curved waves caused by the forward thrust of the body and the triangular end waves caused partially by the propellant were always visible. We suspected these waves to have an impact on the body and thus decided to investigate. Due to the hypothetical nature of this experiment, no numerical data was collected. The variables that were considered were: Variables Independent variable > Speed of the swimmer Dependant variable > Force acting on swimmer from other waves Controlled variable > The swimmers Apparatus * Camcorder * 2 Swimmers: Shahbaz Mir and Dennis Mailu * Bamboo Procedure Test Run To do the test run, we simulated the swimmers using bamboo. ...read more.

Middle

Remember they are now swimming at a faster pace and hence frequency and amplitude of the wave has increased. After Dennis deviated Shahbaz found it a bit easier to finish the swim. Dennis had an easy time again as he had fewer waves obstructing him especially after the halfway mark. Experiment 3 Shahbaz: In the first swim I enjoyed myself it was much easier than all the swims. However in the second one he! It was like not moving at all. I had to use so much energy and effort to move forwards. Dennis: The first swim was the hardest swim from all the other swims. It was like swimming in a heavy liquid. I had to use so much energy to keep up. In the second swim it was easy and I enjoyed myself Conclusion and Evaluation This experiment was very successful because a valid conclusion was drawn from it. The conclusion was that: "The performance of a swimmer is negatively affected by their interaction with the waves produced by other swimmers." We see that also the swimmers performance is affected by reflected waves i.e. from the sides of the pool and hence reflected waves too affect the performance of the swimmer. Therefore we can modify the conclusion to be "The performance of a swimmer is negatively affected by waves reflected from the sides of the pool and by waves produced by other swimmers." ...read more.

Conclusion

Quadrangle Concrete Basketball courts (tarmac) Rugby Field (grass) Squash court (wood) Force 4.2 4.4 4.0 2.6 Co-efficient 1.0 1.048 0.95 0.619 Normal reaction 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 Average 0.90425 Analysis of Collected Data From the data collected for the different types of shoes, it was noted that the coefficient of friction was higher in some surfaces than others. For example: * Red puma has the highest coefficient of friction on the grass. * White Reebok has the highest coefficient of friction on the squash court. * Adidas stud has the highest coefficient of friction on the grass. * Office shoe has the highest coefficient of friction on tarmac. NB: The is a very small margin in the coefficient of friction on the tarmac and concrete. Explanation The reason for the coefficient being higher in some surfaces than others is that the shoes are designed to be used on those surfaces, hence the high coefficient thus better grip. Conclusion From the experiment our hypothesis was proved to be correct as we found that coefficient of friction was highest on the surfaces the shoes were designed for. The correct shoes should always be used in sports in order to: > Avoid injury (e.g. getting blisters) or straining yourself. > Prevent damaging the sports facilities (i.e. squash court surface) > Attain optimum performance in the sport. Evaluation > Some shoes were found to perform better than others on selected surfaces. > On examination, it was found that these were the surfaces for which they were designed. By Jackson Gachie. ...read more.

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