International Baccalaureate: History

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How far do Trotsky(TM)s own misjudgments account for his failure in the power struggle which followed Lenin(TM)s death?

    4 star(s)

    He had Lenin's support, as shown in Lenin's testament, "Comrade Trotsky... is distinguished not only by his outstanding ability. He is personally perhaps the most capable man in the present Central Committee." Although Lenin did present a criticism of Trotsky, "he has displayed excessive self-assurance," he was praised much more than the other candidates for leadership. Trotsky was also the Commissar for War, and was therefore in control of the Red Army. He had proved himself to be a skilled military commander in the Civil War, and had the support of his troops. Trotsky was also a skilled intellectual, colleague Anatoli Lunacharsky said of him, "Trotsky had remarkable gifts as an orator and a writer.

    • Length: 1402 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the Policies of Alexander II and Alexander III

    3 star(s)

    Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III differed on the level of Foreign policy, Judicial and Educational Reforms but they shared a sense of Russian Nationalism. Both Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III had different view points on Foreign Policy. Alexander II pushed for military conquests and urged annexation of the nearest countries to augment the size of the Russian Empire. Through the advancement of the Russian army in the Caucuses, even more area was added to the empire. For example, the Russia military started a campaign against the khanate of Khiva.

    • Length: 1077 words
  3. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was the alliance system responsible for the outbreak of World War One in 1914?

    Frictions between the groups had brought Europe to the verge of war several times after 1900, and were indirectly influential in generating a world war out of the Balkan conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Although the alliance systems were intended to provide mutual defence, they encouraged war equally well by providing military support. In my opinion the most important alliance in the lead up to WW1 was the Austria-Hungary and Germany alliance. Germany gave full support to A-H in case of war in July.

    • Length: 1005 words
  4. Continuity/ Change over Time Essay. Dominating throughout almost the whole region of Eurasia, the Mongols influenced their territories on all levels.

    For instance, the Yuan dynasty was established by Mongols. Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan) became the first Yuan emperor in 1271.The Mongol followers progressively adopted Chinese culture and customs; in the middle of the dynasty (in 1250s), they were already indistinguishable from Chinese in terms of cultural behavior. Mongols brought some political changes into the territories their conquered. For example, the Mongols swept through Russia all the way to Kiev (at the time one of the most important cities in Russia).

    • Length: 1074 words
  5. The League of Nations was a failure. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

    Moreover, behind the scenes, Mussolini persuaded the Conference of Ambassadors to change the initial ruling, so that it would be more to his favour; this questions whether the League was a just upholder of peace. Following the Corfu incident came Bulgaria 1925 - this is very similar to the Corfu incident - when this time it was Greece who was the aggressor. However, the League did not follow similar steps like in Corfu, instead, it condemned the Greek action, and ordered Greece to pull out and pay compensation to Bulgaria.

    • Length: 1105 words
  6. Of all the European belligerents in 1914, was Germany most responsible for the onset of the Great War?

    So, these were threats to other European countries which caused the alliance system. Triple Alliance: Britain, France, Russia and Triple Entente: Germany ,Austria-Hungary ,Italy. It caused the tension between these countries. From the book of Imperial Germany,1871-1914 "The activation of Schlieffen Plan and the German invasion of Luxemburg, Belgium and France was a decision that made war inevitable." As the source said, the Schlieffen plan and the invasion of Belgium was a great factor that caused the WW1. In the same source it tells about "Blank Cheque." With the German government's support Austria could do anything to Serbia.

    • Length: 684 words
  7. Free essay

    Why did Japan adopt Fascism in 1930s?

    (Britannica, n.d) At this point, Japan felt that they were being treated very unfairly. Furthermore, in 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria and slowly conquered land from them. This resulted in a commission report filed in March of 1932 which led to the League of Nations protest and an investigation in the matter. And in March 1932, all countries in the League of Nations voted and decided that as the takeover was illegal resulting in Japan leaving the League of Nations. Japan left the League of Nations because they felt they were treated unfairly which caused an even bigger problem with the west.

    • Length: 1000 words
  8. How did collective security develop, in particular between WWI and WWII?

    However, for collective security, nations need to give up some sovereignty, since the countries involved collectively decide what to do or support. In collective security, selfish national interests are trumped by the "greater good" of peace. In order to maintain peace, nations in a collective security system are expected to stand firm against aggression.C However, as perfect as it may sound, there are problems with collective security, as it is difficult for countries to stand up for the system, while they have no interest in the case.

    • Length: 2063 words
  9. To what extend was Nicholas II prepared to become tsar in 1894?

    "When Count Witte, his Minister of Finance, suggested that the time had come to instruct the heir to the throne in the affairs of the state, Alexander seemed surprised. 'Tell me,' he asked the Minister, 'have you ever spoken to his Imperial Highness, the Grand Duke Tsarevich?' Witte admitted he had. 'Then don't tell me you never noticed that the Grand Duke is a dunce!'" (Figes, Orlando 17) Nicholas saw himself as a weakling, and because the Romanov family looked down on Nicholas II as if a little boy and, his self esteem was very low.

    • Length: 916 words
  10. Why had Prussia, rather than Austria, emerged as the dominant German power by 1871?

    to simplify customs. It was similar to the European Union now, it made it easier to trade between countries. This made it more attractive to trade with German states, as traders now no longer had to go through 10 customs to get from Hamburg to the southern German states. Austria was not included in the Zollverein, as it had a heavily protected economy ("historyhelp"). The Zollverein made it more attractive to trade with German states, which enabled the German states to develop very fast, while Austria didn't. Prussia's education system helped the economic growth. It had made education public, causing a lot of more people to have access to education.

    • Length: 1079 words
  11. To what extent can the origins of the cold war be linked to the Russian revolution?

    Hitler created the context for the Cold War by invading Russia in 1941 and then declaring war on the USA after the attacks on Pearl Harbour. When Nazi Germany, their common enemy, was defeated and occupied the USSR and USA were brought face to face. They realised that they were the only two superpowers in the world who were capable of attacking each other and their conflicting ideologies would only allow one to prevail, this massively raised the tensions between the two countries.

    • Length: 1653 words
  12. Historical Investigation - What were the long term consequences of the Great Fire of London in 1666 for the city?

    London from that point on was constantly tortured by small to grand scale fires, the fires in 1087 and 1135 being the most notable. However none of them could rival the destruction the Great Fire of London caused that began to burn 2nd of September 1666 at 10 o'clock in the evening and lasted for four days. The destruction this disaster brought however marked the birth of the modern day London. B. Summary of the Evidence ? Four-fifths of London were destroyed in the inferno of 1666 ?

    • Length: 1831 words
  13. How did the American anticommunism beliefs help advance the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 60s?

    Board of Education case in 1954. Not only did the FBI exploitations of blacks spur increasing support for the civil rights movement, the Soviets used the basic aspect of communism towards the U.S. Communism basically means a proletariat society, and because U.S. black citizens were thought of as lesser than white citizens, the Soviets supported the civil rights movement taking place. Because the U.S. never ceased to be a superpower, the U.S. sought to give black citizens some leeway and equality. Still, the Soviets used the U.S.

    • Length: 2433 words
  14. Schlieffen Plan - analysis of the sources

    This is represented by the fact that the older man implied as Germany is threatening to hurt the younger boy implied as Belgium with a staff. Also the English sign behind the young boy symbolizes the protection Belgium had from Britain regarding Belgium's neutrality. The target audience seems to be for the British as it shows how older man is picking on a little boy where Germany is the older, violent man and that Germany is a bully to Belgium.

    • Length: 1469 words
  15. Historical Investigation. To what extent did the dissolution of Austria-Hungary influence the independence of the cultures that once existed within the Empire?

    weakness by attempting peace negotiations with the Entende.8 * Czech delegates, the Prime Minister presented their case to organize the revolution in order to build up the Czechoslovak army in Siberia. They used their diplomatic skill and honesty in order to gain recognition from the Allies.9 Yugoslavia: * Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Yugoslav nationalism escalated. 10 * These nationalists called for independence and unification of Yugoslav nationalities of Austria-Hungary and with the merging of Serbia and Montenegro to become a single Yugoslav state.

    • Length: 2120 words
  16. Britain in WWI

    Alfred von Tirpitz's German Navy was an obvious preparation for offensive purposes towards England. While Germany was a part of the Triple Alliance (1882) with Italy and Austria- Hungary, Britain was a part of the Triple Entente (1907) with France and Russia. These two alliances were not getting along well. Britain was a constitutional monarchy under the reign of king George V. Government was run by the Liberal Party whose members included Herbert Asquith (Prime Minister), Sir Edward Grey (Foreign Secretary) and David Lloyd George (Chancellor of the Exchequer). The Second Boer War in Africa left struggles to Britain who then soon realised that it needed a reform for the army and to tackle problems concerning finance, public health and colonial government.

    • Length: 1512 words
  17. Italy before WWI - poverty and migration.

    Italy wasn't fully unified though, it was facing two problems: Venice, which belonged under the Austrians and Rome which was ruled by the Pope. Conquering these two cities was impossible and failed on numerous occasions. Austria was too strong for Italy to defeat and so was the pope who had 100% support from France. These problems would have been much simpler to solve if Italy would have had any money, but its unification brought a great downfall for the economy.

    • Length: 1458 words
  18. Cold War Study Guide - Compare/contrast the Vietnam War policies of Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon.

    - In response to the attack, North Vietnam claimed that the attack was in retaliation to attacks that US had issued previously on North Vietnam. - Johnson argued that the attack was completely unprovoked. - Johnson claimed that the USS Maddox was attacked two times, but there is only one time that it was proven to have been attacked. While Johnson gave the alibi that the USS Maddox was simply on a routine parol cruise, it was later discovered that there was US CIA involvement in North Vietnam.

    • Length: 2468 words
  19. Exam Prep US History - Nixon's Foreign Policy, Start of US Civil War and the Imortance of the Railroads

    - Southern people wanted their own system of government -- with a society and an economy based on slavery. - seemed beyond repair because South didn't think that they were able to make any more compromises. -- both sides (north and south) so grounded in their opinions on slavery that they didn't think that they could even work any more to be under the same form of government as each other. Analyze the successes and failures of the foreign policies of Richard Nixon (1969-1981) Nixon's foreign policy -- Vietnamization / chile / CIA / SALT treaties / détente / Cambodia CHILE 1970 - Chile election - Allende was depicted and identified with the socialist and communist parties.

    • Length: 1430 words
  20. US History Review Sheet -Black Power, Eisenhower's foreign policy and the Battle of Gettysburg

    Whites are praising themselves, thinking that they are doing their part in the movement just by supporting it. - Cooperation with white people lowers the self-esteem of black people because it makes it seem as though they need a white person involved in order to achieve success. Cooperation with white people fosters dependency. - Believed that it was the time for economic and political independence - Financial freedom and freedom of thought - White people oppress people of color all over the world (black panthers relating their oppression to countries overseas-- oppression not only in America) -- American racism is the same as colonialism all over the world.

    • Length: 1474 words
  21. Johnson's Great Society. The two main social reforms that The Great Society tackled were racial injustice and poverty.

    IT DID NOT MAKE "THE POOR...VICTIMS OF THE WELFARE STATE," (DOCUMENT D) BUT ACTUALLY HELPED THEM. THE WAR ON POVERTY WAS THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL PART OF THE "GREAT SOCIETY." IN JOHNSON'S FIRST MONTHS OF PRESIDENCY, HIS FOCUS WAS ON ELIMINATING HUNGER AND DEPRIVATION OF AMERICAN LIFE. THE CENTERPIECE OF THE WAR ON POVERTY WAS THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT OF 1964. IT CREATED THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY TO OVERSEE A WIDE RANGE OF ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMS SUCH AS COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM, HEALTHCARE, HOUSING AND UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF, HEAD START PROGRAMS.

    • Length: 747 words
  22. History Source Analysis. To what extent did the Iranian Islamic revolution in 1979 and the new regime cause the Iran-Iraq war in 1980?

    Furthermore, the Iraqi foreign minister was injured in an assassination plot by Shi'a extremists.4 Hussein's regime killed and deported Iraqi's who supported the revolution in Iraq.5 Claiming that Iraq was killing Islam by attempting to stop the spread of the revolution, the Iranian government insisted that the people commence a religious war of Jihad (a war against non-believers of Islam). This was often used as propaganda, so that Iranians had reason to fight.6 Hussein made it very clear that he would defend Iraq's honour and sovereignty if his regime was undermined by Shi'a Iraqi revolutionaries.7 Both Iran and Iraq were seeking supremacy in the Middle-East, and after Iran had broken the border treaty of Algiers (1975)

    • Length: 1265 words
  23. Brezhnevs rule saw the improvement in living standards as well as education. Yet, these successes were counter-measured by the deterioration in other social aspects

    There was also an increase in workplace absenteeism, which damaged the economy, and also an increase in alcohol consumption, which caused more deaths and lowered life expectancy. Furthermore, healthcare spending was neglected due to the priority of paramilitary spending; the badly skilled and equipped hospital staff saw an increase in corruption and bribery. Therefore, although standards of living and education prospered under Brezhnev's rule, other social areas were ignored completely. Brezhnev's policies was successful in experiencing an increase in the productivity of consumer goods in the Soviet Union; this was a major improvement in the Soviet Union as consumer investment suffered under Stalin's rule as he had been too focused in developing and centralizing the Soviet industry in the 1930s.

    • Length: 1173 words
  24. Why did Germany & Her Allies Lose WW1?

    However, it didn't work out that way. Germany's decision to rely heavily on the Schlieffen Plan, which went wrong in all sorts of areas, led to their first major defeat in the war. Even before any heavy engagement in warfare, Germany had lost a crucial battle. According to British historian A.J.P Taylor, "The sole cause of for the outbreak of war in 1914 was the Schlieffen Plan." With the conclusions drawn by German historian Fritz Fischer, which are from a Post-Revisionist perspective, three main indications outline Germany's intentions of going to war: Germany hoped for a war as soon as

    • Length: 1393 words
  25. Analyse the Reasons why Philip II (1180-1223) was able to establish France as a major power in Medieval Europe

    The legal importance and authority that this position gave him allowed him to play a more active role in the affairs within and outside of France. The reinforcement of his position as suzerain is best shown through Philip's regular assemblies with a national composition which were used to deal with regional matters. The assemblies at Chinon in 1205 and Soissons in 1213 are good examples of this. Homage was incredibly important in extending the sphere of influence of the royal household and commanding legal authority, for example the homage received from Simon de Montefort improved French power in Southern France and forged new diplomatic relations.

    • Length: 2016 words
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"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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