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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Why was Russia particularly vulnerable to revolution?

    Being one of the largest countries in Eurasia, Russia was relatively spread out with a small population. There were many little towns and villages, but there were only three major cities that held any of importance to Russia. Moscow and St. Petersburg were of the main focus to those that wished to control Russia as if you had those two; Russia was in your command. If an invader controlled Moscow, they gain command of the capital, whilst if they invaded St.

    • Word count: 593
  2. Factors That Helped The Rise of the Nazis

    A powerful speaker, he gave his audiences an “emotional experience” (Kershaw, 57) and was later known to be a manipulator of the masses’ hopes and fears, giving them faith in something during the Great Depression (Hite and Hinton, 113), spreading nationalism. His plan was to spread the Nazi belief across Germany in a network that included all 34 Reichstag electoral districts so he could start gaining support in order to gain power (Shirer, 171). He organized the party around the Führerprinzip, which gave him “supreme power over both policy and strategy” and “made the party an obedient tool of Hitler’s will” (Hite and Hinton, 113).

    • Word count: 2212
  3. The rise to power of Mussolini was due to fear of the left Discuss.

    Communism frightened many privileged groups in the country. The upper and middle classes, the Roman Catholic Church and the King greatly feared the revolution. Therefore, they demanded a strong leader that would establish law and order, rescue Italy, and protect them from the revolution. In this situation all the sections of society noticed Mussolini?s speeches, which were addressed towards protecting privileged groups, monarchy and the Church. Thus, he gained support from all of them. A major factor to explain why Mussolini was able to achieve power was not only due to fear of the left, but also because of the government?s instability.

    • Word count: 782
  4. How the Federal Government Failed the Canadian People During the Great Depression

    Prime Minister Mackenzie King failed the Canadian citizens at the beginning of the Great Depression in 1930. Some historians say ? the reason the Canadian economy swirled down so quickly and was so hard to repair was because of Kings hesitation to take action.? Prime Minister King was in denial the depression was happing. He thought it was only temporary, and it would sort its self out. For this reason, King refused to release federal funds to provinces to fight unemployment and under write relief. Finally when King did take action, King and most politicians believed that the governments best course of action in difficult economic times was to do little more than balance the budget, 3 maintain currency, and adjust tariff policies.

    • Word count: 1249
  5. To what extent was Germany responsible for WWI?

    In addition, France resented the defeat of 1870-71 and the seizure of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany. Hence, the French had a desire for revenge which Germany had to be constantly aware of. As a result, Germany developed the Schlieffen Plan which involved a rapid thrust through Belgium into northern France, an attack which would lead to victory, after which forces would be taken meet the threat from Russia on the assumption that they would be slower to mobilize. Germany had signed to a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879 and this support did not die out; in 1909, Germany lent support to Austrian policy in the Balkans, alienating Russia.

    • Word count: 1417
  6. US History. To what extent were the aims of Reconstruction achieved by 1877?

    The civil war finally led to the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation which freed the slaves. After the war, the process of Reconstruction began white started the task of reforming the economic, social and political traditions of the South. The situation was therefore a crisis, but also a great opportunity and a promising start, the South was in some ways ready for whatever changes the North imposed. However, this process of Reconstruction was not completely successful, the North failed to understand the full strength of southern resentment to the freedmen, and President Johnson, the new president after Lincoln was shot, had views that seemed to represent the Old South more than the new United States, this made the Reconstruction process weaker.

    • Word count: 2361
  7. British role in the establishment of The State of Israel

    Once the Mandate was established the positions over Palestine ascended clashing and contradictory objectives of self-rule for the native Palestinians and a national home which was proposed by Zionists Jews. The British operated with and acknowledged several Zionist organizations. Britain delivered for the foundation of a Jewish agency to be, in its certified language, recognized as a public frame for the purpose of advising and collaborating with the Administration of Palestine in such economic, social, and other matters as may affect the establishment of the Jewish population in Palestine.

    • Word count: 933
  8. To what Extent was the Cultural Revolution a truly Ideological movement?

    Whether this was really a method of making the socialist ideology more pure in China, for it was what Mao defended, or if it was a form of ridding Mao from his enemies in the party so that he would remain an unquestioned leader. Was the socialist ideology above personal interest in this campaign which risked all the party had fought for? From the perspective of study which states that the Cultural Revolution was solely an ideological movement, it can be argued that in order to accomplish such ambitious targets of creating a whole new society, concessions and sacrifices had to be made.

    • Word count: 747
  9. How important was the post of Secretary of Labour and Welfare in Perons rise to Power?

    There, he was author of great reforms in the area of workers? rights which are seen today as one of the main reasons for his immense popular support and ultimate election as president. Through analysing not only Peron?s background as a politician and influence as Secretary of Labour and Welfare but also the popular response to his actions, the importance of this post for his legitimate election as president of Argentina in 1946 will be accessed. It is widely agreed that there are two main reasons for why this rise to Secretary of Labour and Welfare made Peron so popular.

    • Word count: 840
  10. Examine the methods used and the conditions which helped the rise to power of one single party state leader in one country of Latin-America in the first half of the 20th century

    These people were searching for anti-communism, but at the same time, economic nationalism, and this was mainly because of the effects of the economic depression of the 30’s at the country. Moreover, the Great Depression was a long-term effect that contributed to Perón’s rise to power. The Great Depression had a great impact in the country but it came some years later. In 1932 the UK agrees at the Ottawa Conference that she would only buy Commonwealth products, this affected Argentinean economy as its model was dependant on the British market.

    • Word count: 1365
  11. The advantages the USA had in the beginning meant that they were always going to win the Cold War To what extent do you agree with this?

    since the beginning in almost every aspect (economical, military, technological, etc) and more importantly, it managed to stay in the same level of superiority, while the USSR completely broke down. This essay will focus on demonstrating how the advantages the USA had, meant they were always going to win the Cold War, taking in mind really important events, such as the space race, the Hungarian Uprising, the end of the cold war and the situation at the beginning of it.

    • Word count: 1523
  12. Japan and WW1

    The Japanese Government in taking this stand was acting with courage and with loyalty. Toward individual Germans she entertained no animosity. She had the highest respect for German scholarship and German military science. She had been sending her young men to German seats of learning, and had based the reorganization of her army upon the German military system. But she did not believe that a treaty was a mere "scrap of paper," and was determined to fulfil her obligations in the treaty with England It seems to have been the opinion of the highest Japanese military authorities that Germany would win the war.

    • Word count: 2065
  13. Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949?

    The CCP?s victory was mainly due to the majority of peasant support. While Chiang Kaishek said of the peasants that their task was ?to provide us (GMD) with information concerning the enemy, food, comforts and soldiers for our armies?[3], Mao Ze Dong said of the peasants that they ?are the backbone of the peasant associations? To attack them is to attack the revolution?. Evidently there is a stark contrast in the opposition leader?s view of peasants. While Chiang believed that they were dispensable, Mao praises and recognizes the peasants-in contrast with the way they had been neglected.

    • Word count: 1494
  14. To what extent can Alexander II be called a liberator

    Therefore the government censured and controlled the education, making difficult the access to higher education. He also restricts the sell of foreign books. Nicholas did not agree with serfdom and he considerate the idea of abolishing it, but he was afraid of the landowners turn against him. However he took actions to improve the peasant life style with help of the minister Pavel Kiselev. Emancipation of the Serfs This was the first and most important liberal reform of Russia during Alexander?s reign making serfs free.

    • Word count: 1275
  15. What were the Aims and Achievements of Stalins Foreign Policy between 1928 and 1941?

    The reason for the self-imposed political isolation experienced by Russia in the late 1920s was thanks to Stalin and his disdain for both foreign Communists and the ?international revolution he never believed in? according to Robert Service. This in turn resulted in his Bolshevising the Comintern to the extent that the Chinese Communist Party was instructed to follow its Nationalist counterpart in exchange for funds and resources, a distinctly un-Marxist compromise. Stalin?s main aim in this early period of his governance was to uphold ?Socialism In One Country? and develop Russia from within using its large supply of natural resources.

    • Word count: 2015
  16. Was the League of Nations doomed to fail?

    Further to this, the League did not fully represent the power balance of the world as the USSR and Germany were prohibited from its membership, and the USA, the most powerful post-war country, declined membership altogether. This, plus the fact that it was dominated by Allied powers, resulted in the League of Nations appearing like a ?Winners? Club? intent on imposing vindictive sanctions rather than a force for international peace from the very offset. The refusal to join the League of Nations by the USA was a catastrophic blow to the fledgling organisation.

    • Word count: 1337
  17. Was Gorbachev the main reason for ending the Cold War?

    This figment of the Great American Psyche was the driving force in Cold War tensions throughout the seventies and eighties and looked set to wreak its onslaught to all corners of the globe, until Mikhail Gorbachev emerged as a new kind of Soviet leader. Thanks to Gorbachev?s abilities to understand that the wishes of the Americans were far from dissimilar to his own, to employ not just his insight but his foresight to see a resolution to such a destructive conflict, he not only deserves the title ?man of the twentieth century?, but also exemplifies the main reason that the Cold War started to come to its long-overdue end.

    • Word count: 1616
  18. To what extent had a Cold War began by July 1945?

    Yet although this conflict was indeed unavoidable by July 1945, it was not always a matter of historical inevitability. During the nineteenth century, the USA and USSR had little interaction but did share very amicable relations, with the USA sympathising with Russia in the Crimean war, and Russia selling Alaska to the Americans. Even into the twentieth century, although USA disliked the feudalistic nature of Tsarism, the two countries continued their ?mutually acknowledged tradition of non-interference in each other?s affairs? according to Gaddis.

    • Word count: 2625
  19. How successful was Khrushchev as Soviet Leader?

    Again similarly to Stalin, Khrushchev?s power base was the most important aspect of his ascent, especially the influence he had in the army, which proved crucial in outmanoeuvring opponents. After an attempt by Politburo members to remove him from power, the success of which was prevented by Khrushchev?s astute political persuasiveness as he referred the matter to a Central Committee full of his own supporters; this ensured Khrushchev was ultimately successful in his rise to Leader of the Soviet Union, although his initial position very fragile.

    • Word count: 1903
  20. He brought his country and his people nothing but harm. To what extent do you agree with this assessment of Stalins domestic policies in the USSR between 1929 and 1953?

    Further to this, it was hoped that the merging of private plots into large state-run farms would increase the motivation of the peasantry with the return to Marxist principles it appeared to symbolise. However for Stalin the symbolism was not of a victory for Socialism, but one for his regime, which now had taken power away from the peasants with regards to the food production necessary to feed the cities? workers. However, the aims of collectivisation were purely based in the interests of industry, with little regard for the welfare of the people; therefore, due to his disregard for their welfare, Stalin certainly was not protecting them from the harm that was to come.

    • Word count: 3076
  21. Terrorism is very hard to define; there is no single universally accepted definition for terrorism. The U.S.A, like other nations has developed their own definition.

    So there is no one true definition of terrorism. Terrorism has been around for as long as people can remember, terrorism dates back to the early signs of civilization. From ancient times to present day?s rebel groups, governments, individuals used force and acts of terror to destroy enemies and to spread fear amongst people. The earliest known terrorist organization to exhibit acts of terrorism was the Zealots of Judea. They carried out an underground campaign against the Roman forces as well as the Jews that joined forces with the Romans.

    • Word count: 1585
  22. Account for the Rise of Power of Mao Zedong

    The Chinese had experienced military humiliations throughout the late nineteenth century in the form of the Opium Wars and the Boxer Rising, yet it was the May the Fourth Movement that was ?the spark that politicised a generation into political activity?, being later recorded in official CCP records as ?part of the World Proletarian Revolution?. Part of this politicised generation was Mao, one of the increasing minority rejecting Confucianism and the social order it instructed. Growing up in a peasant family himself, Mao experienced firsthand the overwhelming taxes imposed upon peasants as well as the austere interest rates demanded by money lenders, some as impossible as 100% interest to be repaid in a matter of months.

    • Word count: 3340
  23. A period of economic and political stagnation. How valid is this assessment of the Brezhnev years?

    Rather than performing heroics in the 1917 Revolution in the manner of the first Soviet leaders, Brezhnev instead gained his reputation in WWII, through his work relocating factories and serving as a political commissar, to end the war with a well respected rank of major general. A lot like both his predecessor and Stalin in terms of administrative ability, yet lacking their strength of personality, Brezhnev nonetheless had an innate political skill allowing him to eliminate rivals by patience and stealth rather than anything obtrusive or untoward.

    • Word count: 1637
  24. Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge as the leader of the USSR in 1929?

    party through his administrative work and holding of key positions, all enabling him to secure a strong power base with which he could successfully emerge as the next leader of the USSR. The most important of these positions was his appointment as General Secretary in 1922. This position, coupled with the fact that he was the only member of the party in both the Politburo and the Orgburo, enabled Stalin to control both the membership of the party and the appointment of key positions as well as what information other people received, and also by setting the agendas for party meetings, he was able to control what was discussed.

    • Word count: 1522
  25. To what extent was Germany the focus of Cold War hostility between 1945 and 1961?

    Germany's geographical position in the centre of Europe and its potential economic strength, made it difficult for the western powers and the USSR to agree about what they could do with Germany. The USSR did not wish to see a resurgent united Germany as that would pose a threat to its security. At the same time, it wished to get as much as out of Germany as possible in terms of reparations. The USA had come to see that the best hope for European peace would lie on the rapid economic recovery of Germany.

    • Word count: 1138

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