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Access the successes and failures of Mussolini(TM)s Domestic and Economic policies

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Introduction

Access the successes and failures of Mussolini's Domestic and Economic policies Similarly to those of Hitler, Mussolini main goal was to create an Italian state with a strong identity and role within Europe with a strong military force. From the day that he became the Italian Prime Minister on 29th October 1922 of a coalition government, he lacked a certain skill in organisation. It was never quite clear exactly what Mussolini wanted to do, he generally made many of his decisions with out any previous planning, nevertheless, Mussolini knew that he wanted to have complete control over the Italian state and soon realised that he desired to carve Italy into an empire similar to the Ancient Romans. Mussolini hoped to increase his power and hold on Italy and was constantly portrayed as a flawless mastermind, who would lead Italy back to greatness, making it head and shoulders above the rest. He did this through propaganda which he filtered though the media, education and regular talks with his people, from his famous balcony. New policies needed to be put into place to transform the Italian society into a war machine while maintaining a prospering economy. Mussolini took a keen interest in the state's education system and the youth organisations that existed in Italy because he knew that children were to be the fascists of the future. He required a nation of warriors, and boys were expected to mature into fierce soldiers that would gladly go to battle with the glory of ...read more.

Middle

The compromise that was reached was that Catholic Action could continue as long as it was purely religious activities, however, the church remained determined to preserve its influence over the youth and made it clear that the fascists must not attempt to suppress Catholic schools or interfere with the Catholic University of Milan or the Federation of Catholic University students. Foreign born Jews in August 1938 were banned from state schools and in the following month the ban was extended to Italian born Jews. They were also banned from teaching in state school and separate schools were set up for Jewish students and teachers. Jews were also not permitted to own large companies or large land estates and were excluded from National Fascist Party and professional and cultural organisations and clubs. In November 1938 laws were enforced that prevented Jews from marrying non-Jews. As a result of these Anti-Semitic policies Italian Jews severely suffered, and they lost the majority of their liberty and standard of living. There was the constant fear that they would adopt the murderous views of the Nazi's. Despite this there were a few exemptions for some Italian Jews that served in the First World War or who served in the fascist regime in some capacity. A decree was passed in November 1943 which ordered the confiscation of Jewish property and the rounding up of all Jews, over 7500 Jews were sent to Nazi death camps in Eastern Europe with only 600 that survived. ...read more.

Conclusion

It was hoped the land reclamation would also provide land for cereal growth. The site was situated only 50km outside Rome, it was therefore a perfect propaganda opportunity for Mussolini and the Fascists. This resulted in the Pontine Marshes near Rome becoming drained, New towns Latina and Sabaudia were created as show pieces. Fewer than 10,000 people benefited from the land reclamation. IRI (Institute for Industrial Reconstruction) was established. This was a government agency set up in 1933 to help industry. It took over industrial shares previously held by banks and those of other companies in trouble. Although originally meant to be temporary it became permanent in 1937 and extended powers to take over private firms. By 1939 the IRI controlled 75% of pig iron, 90% of ships and ship building, 45% of steel and 20% of industry. However, from 1935 many of Mussolini's economic policies were closely linked with his foreign and war policies. Mussolini had brought stability to a certain extent to Italy, and was personally popular for the majority of the 21 years that he was in power, however, he did not bring about any for of revolution and did not really achieve any of his real goals for the fascist party. The majority of the ideas he had for Italy had more failures then successes, perhaps his only real achievement in the domestic sphere was his concordat with the Catholic Church. Mussolini had hoped to transform the Italian Character and the Italian society into a fascist mould, however, he was disappointed. Farrah Laborde ...read more.

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