• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An Investigation into Voluntary Censorship during the first six months of the Korean War

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An Historical Investigation IB History Internal Assessment Michael Zuber Student Number: 002351-060 Coll�ge du L�man School Number: 002351 Word Count: 1846 words An Investigation into Voluntary Censorship during the first six months of the Korean War. Table of Contents A. Plan of Investigation 2 B. Summary of Evidence 2 C. Evaluation of Sources 5 D. Analysis 6 E. Conclusion 9 F. Bibliography 10 A. Plan of Investigation (85 words) This investigation examines the extent to which media censorship in the United States during the initial stages of the Korean War (up to December 21, 19501), was voluntary. December 21, 1950 was the date that General MacArthur imposed full censorship on all media output.2 In addition to his manipulation of information, General MacArthur's role in censorship of information is also analyzed. Two sources, U.S. Television News and Cold War Propaganda, 1947-1960, by Nancy Bernhard and Selling the Korean War, by Steven Casey are evaluated. B. Summary of Evidence (526 words) Propaganda has been used throughout history in order to shape opinion and perception.3 In the twentieth century, an expansion in communications media caused for propaganda to be used more persuasively than ever before.4 War propaganda has often been subject to censorship and the Korean War was no exception. During the initial stages of the Korean War, eye-witness reports stated that South Korean troops were deserting, causing MacArthur's headquarters to issue a counter report declaring that reports of a South Korean collapse had been exaggerated.5 This led to President Truman giving MacArthur control over all of the UN forces in ...read more.

Middle

Selling the Korean War: Propaganda, Politics, and Public Opinion, 1950-1953, by Steven Casey, a PhD in International Relations and expert on US foreign policy since 1933,26 is written with the same view as that of Bernhard and therefore both books serve as a complement to one another, thereby increasing their values. The purpose of Casey's book is to look at the "attempts by the US military in Korea to shape, manipulate and mould the images and stories from the actual fighting fronts."27 The book was published in 2008 and therefore gave the already well-respected author access to a wide range of sources including books, articles and personal interviews. The book has also been given rave reviews by many other respected historians such as Ralph B. Levering.28 However, Casey could be guilty of exaggerating the extent to which the US government tried to 'sell' the Korean War to its people. His ideas seem very one-sided and he often does not argue his case objectively. This causes for a certain degree of bias and slightly limits the value of the book. D. Analysis (772 words) Although censorship was supposedly voluntary, a perplexing situation had occurred: officially there was no censorship, but reporters were warned not to reveal delicate information.29 In a press statement by MacArthur's press officer, Colonel Echols, journalists were told that they were not to state "specific units, sizes, titles, places of landings, locations and troop movements" in their articles/stories.30 Also, voluntary censorship came with problems. ...read more.

Conclusion

information bureaus for their every day stories.51 For example, reporters from both the Chicago Tribune and the Daily Worker depended on the Office of Public Affairs (PA) for almost all their main stories.52 Also, reporters normally treated PA officers as primary sources of information.53 The fact that most television networks obtained most of their film from government produced films allowed the US government to control the spread of public information.54 Therefore, even though there technically existed a voluntary censorship system, most information given to news agencies was already censored. However, many (such as reporters from the New York Times) felt that this censorship was crucial in ensuring military security.55 The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) also played a critical role in the spread of information in the United States. Shortly before the Korean War started, many (but not all) broadcasting stations associated themselves with the NAB. Justin Miller, president of the NAB stated that he thought it necessary to preserve the American way of life and therefore gave full cooperation to the American objective which undoubtedly led to censorship of information. 56 E. Conclusion (72 words) Technically, 'voluntary censorship' during the Korean War was the only type of censorship that existed. Also, many organizations, including the NAB, in the United States did practice voluntary censorship as they thought it necessary in order to protect the American people. However, in reality censorship started long before information was even given to the media. MacArthur ensured that information given to journalists was information that he considered safe enough to let out. F. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. World War 1 Information

    wants access to Adriatic Sea, which is under control of the Turks > Bulgaria and Serbia are encouraged by Russia to fight Turkey > As a result, Albania is created to act as a buffer between Serbia and Austria-Hungary because of the tension > Second Balkan War 1913 > Bulgaria

  2. Schlieffen Plan - analysis of the sources

    seen however that both the German man and the Belgian boy are carrying objects that could be used as physical weapons against each other.

  1. Historical Investigation

    to the limited options available to the planners than to any inherent brilliance in planning. The adjustments during the War such as invading the Marianas to supply a long-range bombing base tended to be more decisive than the pre-war plans.

  2. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    Yugoslavia was expelled from the Cominform in 1948 g) Eastern Germany. East Germany was run by the USSR under Red Army control. Its political leaders wore grey suits, lacked any personality or individuality and were clearly puppets of the Soviet Union => Conclusions => To Truman, Attlee and Bevin, the Soviet Union was not living up to its commitments under the Declaration on Liberated Europe made at Yalta.

  1. What is their Story?

    Both Freeman and McConaughey's characters are somewhat fictitious, though, as Baldwin was really an experienced lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence and Joadson was a completely made up character that was simply added for entertainment purposes. Spielberg manages to shed light on a time that is hardly talked about in history books today.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    their destiny' - It was to be financed by contributions from Arab states and taxes levied from the Palestinians themselves. - Official objectives as outlined by their covenant were to: remove Zionism from Palestine, commit itself to an armed struggle and reject the historical events from 1918 to 1964 -

  1. Extended Essay History: How did the US media reporting of the Vietnam War out ...

    to the reporting of events out of context and in many cases being manipulated by various media outlets such as television, radio and newspapers. During the Vietnam War, the various media outlets such as television, radio and newspapers competed with each other to try to report on information that was more esxecnistaintigonal than the information of their competitors.

  2. Why did Tsarism fail to survive the first world war

    The defeat also displayed serious structural flaws in the Tsarist system and provided a forum for discontent to be voiced by the people. This further circumvented the autocratic rule and instilled doubt and hatred in the population towards the Tsar bringing the regime yet another step closer to its inevitable demise.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work