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Analyse the causes of the Spanish Civil War

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Introduction

Analyse the causes of the Spanish Civil War This essay will focus on the causes that led to the Spanish Civil war, concentrating on the political, social and economic problems. There will both be long and short term causes which created tensions that intensified over time. In the 19th century, Spain had struggled between periods of conservation and liberalism. There were many reasons that caused division and instability before and during the 1930's. To begin with, the long-term causes all added up to each other to create the outbreak of the civil war. Politically, the fact that from 1871, Spain had been a constitutional monarchy meant that it was democratically ruled even though the Cortes was elected by male population. The real power was actually held by the wealthy oligarchs; the two main parties out of these were very similar and the elections were corrupted. Consequently, people were 'invited' to oppose the system without excluding violence. Spain, once rich and powerful, had been in decline for centuries as it was a rural and pre-industrial country, and underdeveloped compared to the other major countries. ...read more.

Middle

Under King Alfonso XII, Spain was far from modernization, the war in Morocco ended unsuccessfully and, after a series of unsuccessful governments, no resistance was made in response to De Rivera's coup of 1923. De Rivera tried to establish a right wing regime to solve problems in a similar way to the Italian fascist model, even though he was not a fascist. He tried infrastructure programs and tried to develop the industrial production. He planned to give employment to people and enrich Spain. Another example to support this view is that he ended the war in Morocco, which was not only humiliating, but very expensive as well. His plans though were brought to an end by the massive debts that crippled Spain when the Wall Street Crash happened. As a consequence, financial problems and unemployment caused the army to withdraw support and General Primo De Rivera had to resign. The municipal election in April showed the preference, for the San Sebastian Pact, coalition of parties. This included republicans, liberals, socialists and Catalans, the King decided to go to exile and he was not saved by the Church or Army. ...read more.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the causes of the Spanish Civil War were many, ranging from the military instability to the political inefficiency, involving even the peasants to desire a war for change. In the period of the war, Spain was divided in several political parties and ideas but people were grouped under two main names: the Nationalists and the Revolutionaries. Alliances were consolidated inside the groups but nevertheless there were internal fights as well (for example, communists and anarchists, with different objectives, were part of one group). The Spanish situation involved even other countries even though European heads had a pact which was meant to give no help to Spain. Germany was a major supplier in army and armaments because, in preparation of the Second World War, he wanted to test his new equipment. Italy as well helped, following Germany in supplying men and equipment. On the opposition?s side instead Russia refurnished the country in exchange of gold and young men from around the world helped forming what was called the International Brigade. In the end though, Spain was so damaged and poor that it did not participate in the Second World War. If it had though, it would have probably been on Germany?s side; would have this changed the results of war? ...read more.

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