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Analyse the factors that led to the rise of the Communist party in China.

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Sanya Aurora DP-1 Q. Analyse the factors that led to the rise of the communist party in China. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Qing dynasty, which had ruled China for 2000 years, was in decline. The period following the end of the empire in 1911 was a turbulent one, with various groups fighting for power in China. This civil war ended only in 1949, with the Chinese Communist Party establishing control over the country. There are quite a few factors that led to this rise of communism in China. The decline of the empire, foreign interference and imperial advances, and the warlord era are some factors, and these in turn contributed to the discontent of the peasants, another major factor. The actions of the rival political party, the Kuomintang, also aided the growth of communism. Another point to consider is the Japanese invasion. All these points, coupled with the way the CCP took advantage of the actions of the KMT, gained popularity among the peasants, and the overall suitability of communism for China at the time are the causes for the rise of the communist party. This essay will elaborate these factors, and analyse the relevance of each. The Manchu dynasty began losing power toward the end of the 19th century. There were many imperial advances in China by Europeans. The British were a prominent threat. ...read more.


Mao decided that breaking through the KMT and establishing a base somewhere was the best chance of survival. So, in October 1934, 100,000 communists broke through KMT lines and set out on the historical 'Long March'. They covered remarkable ground in China, and set up a new base in Yenan in the Shensi province, in the north. Communism spread throughout this time, and there was continued propaganda. People would have been impressed by the heroism of the Red Army. The Kuomintang wanted to exterminate the communists, however under Mao's leadership they Red Army managed to gain more popularity during this time. If the Long March hadn't occurred, communism might have died out. However, even though many died, the KMT attempts to wipe out communism actually accelerated it. Another very important factor is the invasion of China by the Japanese. They had occupied Manchuria by 1931, and were showing intent to take control of the nearby provinces as well. Instead of focusing on the Japanese, he wanted to exterminate the communists. The communists however wanted to focus on the problem of Japan. This also endeared the communists to the people, with their strong nationalist ideals. In 1936, he wanted to attack Mao at Shenshi. At this point, he was taken prisoner by his own soldiers, many of whom were Manchurian. He still resisted fighting the Japanese, and only changed his mind when Zhou Enlai, a key figure in the CCP, visited him. ...read more.


However, even without the invasion there were other factors contributing to the popularity of the CCP. Mao played a huge role in the establishment of communism in China. I wonder how different these events would be if he had never been born. He was instrumental during the Long March, and made many important policies. However, communism was already a known doctrine in China. Sun Yat-sen had had communist help to set up the KMT. There were also other dedicated leaders like Zhou Enlai. Communism might just have survived without Mao. However, this is all speculation. The civil unrest set up the country for a change of government. These factors do not lead directly to communism, but without them, neither the KMT nor the CCP could have established authority. The communists were victorious over the KMT due to the shortcomings of the KMT mentioned above, and the way the communists took advantage of them, and tried to gain peasant support. The main reason for the communist victory is thus the clever leadership of the party. The factors leading to the rise of the communist party in China are, therefore, the fall of the Manchu dynasty, peasant discontent and the way the communists alleviated that discontent, the erroneous actions of the KMT, the Japanese invasion and the way the communist leaders made sure that all this proved to be advantageous to their party. All these factors are interwoven, and lie in a delicate balance. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1. China 1900-1949 (Photocopies) 2. Brooman, Josh. "China Since 1900". New York: Longman Inc., 2005. ...read more.

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