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Architectural Masterpieces in England

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Introduction

COLEGIUL NATIONAL "I.C. BRATIANU" PITESTI ARCHITECTURAL MASTERPIECES IN ENGLAND NAME: GABRIELA COMANESCU CLASS: XII H COORDINATOR: PROF. GUTA CRISTINA 2011 Contents I. Introduction...............................................................................2 II. Short overview of the architecture in England .....................................3 III. Religious Monuments..................................................................7 III.1. Salisbury Cathedral...............................................................7 III.2. Westminster Abbey Cathedral..................................................8 III.3. St. Paul's Cathedral..............................................................9 IV. Royal residences.......................................................................10 IV.1. Hampton Court Palace.........................................................10 IV.2. The Buckingham Palace.......................................................11 IV.3. Palace of Westminster.........................................................12 V. Conclusions.............................................................................13 Bibliography............................................................................14 I. Introduction This work aims to present in an original manner one of the most representative architectural masterpieces of England. An appropriate selection would be enormously difficult given the amount of outstanding edifices that England has got. Therefore, a classification using the criteria of architectural trends has been made. Architecture always has and always will be the cultural part of a nation that provides most information about the development of it since its origins. The architectural styles reflect in the most accurate way the characteristics of the era which they belong to. In order to better understand the essence, the genesis, the customs of a nation at a certain point of its existence, it is highly recommended that one should have good knowledge of both that nation's architecture and the elements that influenced it. The most important of these elements are the nations with which England interfered along the centuries, because to a certain extent they have obviously contributed to the way in which buildings were designed and constructed. From an architectural point of view, England has a lot of reasons to be proud of, because the breathtaking buildings are witnesses of a glorious history, of the rich resources of the country and also of the spiritual beauty of the people that are living there. II. Short overview of the architecture in England English architecture, like all aspects of English culture, is marked by the history of the country and the influence of foreign ideas through invasions and more passive means. ...read more.

Middle

Wren determined that the spire was leaning off plumb by 30 inches, and had iron rods inserted to strengthen the structure. Centuries later Wren's work was checked, and modern measurements revealed that the tower had not moved so much as an inch. Sir Christopher, it seems, knew his business well. The cathedral also has the largest cloister and the largest cathedral close in Britain (80 acres). The Cathedral contains the world's oldest working clock (from AD 1386) and has the best surviving of the four original copies of Magna Carta (all four original copies are in England) III.2. Westminster Abbey Cathedral Westminster Abbey is steeped in more than a thousand years of history. Benedictine monks first came to this site in the middle of the tenth century, establishing a tradition of daily worship which continues to this day. It has been the coronation church since 1066 and is the final resting place of seventeen monarchs. The present church, begun by Henry III in 1245, is one of the most important Gothic buildings in the country, with the medieval shrine of an Anglo-Saxon saint still at its heart. A treasure house of paintings, stained glass, pavements, textiles and other artefacts, Westminster Abbey is also the place where some of the most significant people in the nation's history are buried or commemorated. Taken as a whole the tombs and memorials comprise the most significant single collection of monumental sculpture anywhere in the United Kingdom. Westminster Abbey has always enjoyed close links with the monarchy not least in its unbroken role as the coronation church since 1066. Kings and queens have been significant benefactors of the Abbey, beginning with King Edgar (reigned 959-75) who gave the original monastic community at Westminster substantial lands covering most of what is now the West End of London. Almost a hundred years later King Edward (later Edward the Confessor) established his palace close to this monastic community and built for it a large stone church which became his own burial place. ...read more.

Conclusion

The subsequent competition for the reconstruction of the Palace was won by architect Charles Barry and his design for a building in the Perpendicular Gothic style. The remains of the Old Palace (with the exception of the detached Jewel Tower) were incorporated in its much larger replacement, which contains over 1,100 rooms organised symmetrically around two series of courtyards. Barry was assisted by Augustus W. N. Pugin, a leading authority on Gothic architecture and style, who provided designs for the decoration and furnishings of the Palace. The Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom; "Westminster" has become a metonym for the UK Parliament, and the Westminster system of government has taken its name after it. Its Clock Tower, in particular, which has become known as "Big Ben" after its main bell, is an iconic landmark of London and the United Kingdom in general, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city and an emblem of parliamentary democracy. The Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987. V. Conclusions At the end of the project, some clarifications are highly required in order to access the essence of this work. It has attempted an original approach, its purpose being to arouse the curiosity of the readers regarding the magnificent buildings of England and the clarification of some theoretical facts. Also, it has tried to include some elementary notions from this domain and to present them in an attractive way. The division into chapters was made so that the main points of interest of the project would be adequately highlighted. Each architectural masterpiece mentioned disposes of its own chapter, each one of them including one or two illustrations, according to the requirements of the text. The illustrations have been carefully selected from a large variety in order to express the exposed ideas as exactly as possible. ...read more.

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