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Assess the relative importance of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi to the unification of Italy up to 1867

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Introduction

Assess the relative importance of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi to the unification of Italy up to 1867. After the Vienna Settlement ended in June 1815, a system of separate states, mostly controlled by their former ruling houses, was reestablished in Italy. There were eleven different states that ruled the Italian peninsula but in 1860, most of the states were unified into one state, known as the 'Kingdom of Italy'. Giuseppe Mazzini, Camillo di Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi were the Italian patriots who had taken a big role on unifying the peninsula. In the Vienna Congress, which was mainly to discuss the aftermath of France, the representatives had agreed to restore the Austrian domination over the Italian peninsula. However the decision ultimately divided the peninsula into ten separate states. Piedmont-Sardinia (Kingdom of Sardinia), which was considered the most advanced state in Italy, was controlled by Victor Emmanuel I (House of Savoy), Lombardy and Venetia were under direct Austrian control, Parma, Modena, Lucca, and Tuscany were all controlled by the Austrian princes, Papal States were under the Pope's control, and Naples and Sicily (Kingdom of Sicily) were controlled by Ferdinand. ...read more.

Middle

While it initially looked as if the independence and unity of Italy was going to come true, the Austrians defeated the Piedmontese in the 'Battle of Novara' which forced Charles Albert to abdicate from his position; his son Victor Emmanuel II, succeeded him in 1849. Early in 1849 Mazzini was elected as a member of a government in Tuscany (for a short while) following the departure of Grand Duke and as one of the leaders of the new Roman Republic following the departure of the pope into exile at Gaeta. He was also elected as a member of a constituent assembly that was to assume the responsibility of framing a constitution for the Roman Republic; in late March he was appointed as one of the 'Triumverate' who were invested with highest ranking powers in the Roman Republic. Later the pope issued appeals to the European powers to help in the re-establishment of the control of Rome by the Papacy, and by June the Roman Republic fell by the French troops; soon Mazzini returned back to London. He came back to Italy during the wars of 1859 and 1860 but took only limited satisfaction in seeing the establishment of a unified Italian Kingdom in 1861. ...read more.

Conclusion

In general all three patriots took big roles on gaining Italian unification but out of the three it would be Cavour that contributed the most. He was actually the leader who was able to talk to Napoleon III about war against Austria and due to this Italy gained victory. His leadership also influenced lots of Italian citizen; therefore he was able to get lots of support. If his relationship with Napoleon III would have been much closer, than there could have been possibility that the French would not agree terms with the Austrians, and Venetia could be directly owned by the Italians. Garibaldi also took a big role on the unification and for some time he coped well with Cavour on gaining victory against Austria; he also took big roles on invading Sicily and Naples. Garibaldi's aim of 'a single Italy must be our first goal' was actually one of the speeches that influenced the citizens. Mazzini was also an important figure on the unification; he created the 'Young Italy' movement and caused lots of revolutions. Although he was in exile for lots of time, he still contributed a lot for Italy. Basically by 1860 all the territories except Rome (Papal States, although later Italy invades the city) and Venetia were all united to Italy. ?? ?? ?? ?? 2/10/08 ...read more.

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