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Bismark's Germany

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The Great War (1914-1918) � Industrial mass slaughter - battles of attrition � Attrition: outlasting & outproducing your enemies was essential (U.S. is most dominant industrial country - American manpower & machinery contributes greatly to the side of the Triple Entente/the Allies) � Rare - none of the primary nations (except Germany) had war aims when war started, they were manufactured by the mobilizations of the other countries � Germany fought to protect their country and expand their empire � France, Britain, & Russia were mainly defensive in their movements but had no idea why there was an outbreak of war � Total war - civilians and non-combatants fought (war feeling were felt by everyone, not just soldiers) (no distinction between civilians and soldiers - everyone suffered) � Government took over control of economy � Rations of food & steel etc. ...read more.


*How did it start? How did it turn into a stalemate war? Eastern Front Battles of Tannenberg & Massurian Lakes (Aug. 1914) � Russia mobilized faster than expected and attacks eastern Prussia. The German Generals Ludendorff and Hindenberg dominate the battles with Russia and the Russians suffer the loss of 250,000 troops in the early stages Austria-Hungary: � attack on Russian Poland - loses 400,000 troops � Fail to defeat Serbia - Serbians are able to counter-attack and penetrate into Bosnia with manpower from Russian troops (Austria's military troops are incompetent - unorganized and lacking manpower) � Austria-Hungary requires significant German assistance (weakens German core an lessens the amount of troops they have to maintain their own war aims) Western Front Germany: � launches a modified Schlieffen plan � dominates the war in the beginning � attack is delayed by resistance by Belgium France: � loses 300,000 troops in the first month of war, defending against German invasion and protecting Belgium "Rape of Belgium" (misuse/bias of propaganda) ...read more.


to outflank the enemy creates a series of trenches - both sides are waiting for more manpower and more weapons (from their colonies - i.e. Canada & Australia for Britain) � Europe existed in the same conditions for the rest of the war - hundreds of thousands of men died and no advancements were made Trench Warfare � Many soldiers were lost because of the conditions in the trenches The "September Program" � Does this support the idea that Germany has imperialistic/militaristic ambitions? (Most countries entered the war with no plans but they adapted their war aims as they fought) � Germans are confident of victory and make plans for a German-occupied Europe: � France would be weakened & Russia would be broken up into many states � Germany would seek a compromise peace with Britain � Germany would create a "Mitteleuropa" - a central European customs union (free trade), under German economic leadership ...read more.

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