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Brazil: Economic, Political, Social Change

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Introduction

Caroline Kohorst Pollard IB History of the Americas 31 October 2007 Brazil: Economic, Political, Social Change Brazil's "economic miracle" 1. Skidmore, Thomas E. and Peter H. Smith. Modern Latin America. 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. This source explains the effects of Brazil's economic choices that ultimately lead to the economic expansion known as Brazil's "economic miracle". As the source holds the military as the key player in the bettering of the Brazilian economy, the reasons as to why the economy was growing are listed. * With the Revolution of 1964 came the new military government focused upon a democratic structure in order to achieve its primary goal of economic growth. * This government in return was able to grow beyond expectations of the Brazilians, but was proven ineffective in its lack of education reform. 2. "D´┐ŻNio Nogueira and the Brazilian Economic Miracle." Capital Flow Analysis. Center for Capital Flow Analysis. 30 Oct. 2007 <http://www.capital-flow-analysis.com/ investment-tutorial/case_1n.html>. This source evaluates the role the Brazilian government played in the economic growth during the 1960s. The value of this source is in its ability to inform about the positive outcomes that helped transform Brazil from an unindustrialized nation to a stable economic nation based upon an array of exports and imports, unlike the dependent agricultural exports of previous years. The specific worth of this article is in its explanations of how the country grew and with what exports. ...read more.

Middle

Although the Brazilian people may be uplifted, the man states that democracy and representation have been "buried," and the country is supporting itself upon "pageantry and blue, green, and yellow flags." Bureaucratic-authoritarianism 1. Stepan, Alfred, ed. Americas: New Interpretive Essays. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. This source defines what bureaucratic-authoritarism represents in Latin America, and can therefore be applied to Brazil. The book cites many objective views upon this type of "right-wing repression." The value of this source is its ability to define, with allusions to other Latin American governments, the government in which Vargas created in Brazil. A limitation to this source is its failure to apply the bureaucratic-authoritarianism to Vargas. The source, although ample in its description of the type of government, does not reference Brazil. It can be concluded that even though there is a lack in reference to Brazil, the source helps in understanding the type of government imposed upon Brazil. * The bureaucratic-authoritarian state requires the government to "stimulate" economic growth through both foreign and domestic investment. * This government is concluded as a result of "ungovernability" in which the leader must take a large role in controlling the nation; sometimes this may occur despite the citizen's desires. * Although these "neoliberal" plans are not considered radical, the "socioeconomic transformations" prove to be the key in some successes of this government. 2. Eakin, Marshall C. Brazil: The Once and Future Country. ...read more.

Conclusion

This source proves itself extremely valuable through its close examination of how Vargas came to power, and how he constructed a plan to help Brazil out of debt and more focused on a healthy economy. * Once OPEC raised its oil prices, Brazil was immediately sent into a recession, due to its high dependence upon oil. * Leaders decided to continue investing in industry and exports, and were able to do so through "petrodollars," or loans from the United States and European banks. * This parallels with grandeza, and the need to set priorities for the country. Brazil faced major debt, but was able to push new ideas about alternative gasoline, and therefore reduced some impact upon its dependence for oil. 3. Keen, Benjamin, and Keith Haynes. A History of Latin America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000. This source provides insights into the policies that Vargas implemented in order to help Brazil grow its industries, and therefore help in economic growth. The value of this source is its close identification of the necessity Vargas felt to maintain a less dependent state upon oil. A limitation of this source is that it does not mention the after effects of the oil search, or the effect of automobiles upon the Brazilian economy. * With Vargas announcing his Five-Year Plan, his goals were to expand heavy industry, including oil. * As Vargas witnessed large companies begin the production of trucks, such as in 1946 with the National Motor Company. Vargas realized the booming industry of petroleum could only help in boosting Brazil's economy and a self-sufficiency with oil. Kohorst 1 ...read more.

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