• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and Contract the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III in Russia?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Compare and Contract the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III in Russia? Alexander III opposed his fathers policies, and he made it very clear at the beginning of his reign that he would never permit limitations on autocratic rule. Alexander II and Alexander III both wanted to preserve and improve the autocracy, however both go about it in many different ways. Alexander II was more of a reformer, through policies such as the emancipation of the serfs, in comparison to Alexander III who used repression to be successful. It was seen that Alexander II made many radical reforms but still managed to leave Russia backwards in 1881. Alexander II attempted to give Russia western values and ideas, but failed as he was very inconsistent with his ruling, as he was trying to be radical while trying to preserve autocracy in comparison with Alexander III took a very firm stance, and after his reforms Russia won wars against Turkey, foreign investment encouraged by the state led industrialisation actually made Russia wealthy and led to the improvement many institutions. Politically, Alexander II and Alexander III, led Russia in two very separate ways. Alexander the II was very successful, in his reform to emancipate the serfs, was seen as a vital stage in the transition to a capitalist economy. ...read more.

Middle

Similarly Alexander III had the same aims in improving the economy radically. Alexander III established land banks in 1883 and this provided cheap credit for peasants to buy land. For the very first time Russia's budget achieved a surplus. Between 1881 - 85 the labour legislation was introduced to improve working conditions for women and children with factory inspections. Both Alexander II and Alexander III were very weak in trying to improve agriculture in Russia, they make very little change overall. Socially, Alexander II and Alexander III were similar in being successful in improving issues within education they both gave considerable amount of freedom but at the same time wanting to restrict the Russian people from formulate their own ideas so they wouldn't be able to question the system, this also apply to judicial reforms. Alexander II was strategically intelligent in the creation of the Zemstva - which was the spreading of power from tsar to the general population, they could better handle local issues that the central government (in comparison to Alexander III who . The standard of teaching improved as responsibility was transferred from the church to the zemstva in 1864. Schools were declared open to all classes and the number of primary schools in the countryside grew from 8000 to 23000 in 1880. ...read more.

Conclusion

Before emancipation, serfs could not receive military training and then return to their owners. Bureaucratic inertia, however, obstructed military reform until the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) demonstrated the necessity of building a modern army. The levy system introduced in 1874 gave the army a role in teaching many peasants to read and in pioneering medical education for women. But the army remained backward despite these military reforms. Officers often preferred bayonets to bullets, expressing worry that long-range sights on rifles would induce cowardice. In spite of some notable achievements, Russia did not keep pace with Western technological developments in the construction of rifles, machine guns, artillery, ships, and naval ordnance. Alexander III's reforms of the 1880s-90s succeeded in enhancing the importance of traditional social estates, and satisfied conservatives by undermining Alexander II's reforms in the 1860s. They partially made the same reforms in the terms of improving education and judical freedom however they were very different in many respects. Alexander II made many reforms however was inconsistent in his ruling, he tried to be a radical while preserving the autocracy, and this led to the downfall of the Russian economy, leaving Russia backwards. Alexander III however kept a firm stance in ruling, and built the foundation in which Russia could modernise. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the Policies of Alexander II and Alexander III

    3 star(s)

    Additionally, Alexander II pushed for military cooperation between Russia and Germany. As a result, in 1873, the Russian-German military convention was signed. Alexander II also led Russia successfully in the Russo-Turkish war of 1887. However, Alexander III tried to turn away from the cooperation with Germany and in addition; he

  2. To what extent did Alexander II's reforms cause more problems than they solved?

    of conscription for everybody was a great move towards weakening class privilege. This new reform supported the Tsar as well, as now he had a stronger army available to defend him and Russia. However, substitutes could be provided by people conscripted, this increasing the exploitation of the poor (as the

  1. The policies of Alexander II and III of Russia

    Secondary schools accessible to all classes, no class distinctions, teaching was modernised, textbooks hugely improved, created huge increases in class equality.6 d. University autonomy re-established7, free to teach all areas, rectors elected, teachers still needed permission to be appointed, increased freedom of intellectual class (Apendices3)

  2. Was the Tsar to blame for his own downfall?

    She also appointed corrupt ministers that along with Rasputin's personal behaviour that included alcohol made the prestige and reputation of the regime decline even further. Moreover, the Tsar ignored the chaotic events that took place just before his downfall

  1. Bismarck's policies success

    A policy first perceived as a failure but which Bismarck intellectually twisted to satisfy his own benefits. Kulturkampf means a struggle of the cultures. The unification of Germany meant many different cultures and religions were merged. Most of North Germany, including Prussia was Protestant, but the Southern German states (Bavaria and Baden and Alsace Loraine)

  2. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    and changed in the voting system (electorate reduced by 2/3 in St Petersburg) strengthened autocracy and noble?s control over the country side while weakening peasant control. Peasantry and Social Policy 1. Land Captains and repression was so severe that some feared a return to serfdom.

  1. To what extent did the reforms of Alexander II achieve his aims

    The Emancipation Edict was finally announced on 19 February 1861. It however applied only to privately owned serfs (serfs owned by the state had to wait until 1866). Serfs were now free to marry anyone, own property and start their own business.

  2. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Alexander II of Russia's reforms.

    The majority of serfs stayed within the lord?s land. The Russian government promoted them to stay because it made it easier for them to control the new ?free? population. They achieved this through the re-organisation of local government. The Mir was formed which became the focus of life in the countryside.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work