• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and contrast Mussolini's and Hitler's rise to power

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Compare and contrast Mussolini's and Hitler's rise to power 1493 words From the beginning of German and Italian fascism, the methods employed by Hitler and Mussolini to acquire power have been highly comparable. These methods include the political stance of the leaders, the support of Military associations, the use of paramilitary wings, social and political coercion, firm communist opposition, the support and control of the church and the employment of propaganda. The political stance of Hitler and Mussolini was used be each to acquire power in Germany and Italy respectively. Politically, Hitler and Mussolini each wanted more land and their country to be recognized as a European power - sentiments that would be the driving force behind their acquisition of power. During WWI, unskilled upper-class military leaders were blamed for the high casualties of war and as a result, the military experience of Hitler and Mussolini later made them desirable as political leaders. Thompson relates that the 'third way' offered by both leaders assisted their acquisition of power in the face of incompetent Liberal governments and the threat of Socialist revolution. ...read more.

Middle

Militarily, the authoritative control demonstrated by fascist military wings in both countries gave the illusion of stability and purpose to countries and peoples devastated by WWI and Versailles. Hitler and Mussolini alike encouraged nationalism and pride, merging these concepts with fascism. Broszat relates that in Germany an interest in cultural music was nurtured and Nazi flags were raised in every town. The values of family and patriotism were exaggerated - a clear example of this was seen in the Corfu incident. According to Lee, Mussolini used the murder of an Italian general on the Greek island of Corfu, to manipulate the emotions of the Italian public thereby gaining votes for his party. Mussolini's demands for apology and recompense were seen as bold, strong and fiercely nationalistic, and he was viewed as a hero. Unlike Hitler, however, Mussolini did not use coercion to create anti-semitic and anti-communist attitudes to the extent that the Nazi's did. Mason describes the Burning of the Reichstag, and relates that Hitler used this incident to manipulate political and public opinion against socialism. While the communist party was a major political party in both Germany and Italy, a vast majority of the populations (particularly the middle and upper classes) ...read more.

Conclusion

The adoption of the names 'Fuhrer' and 'Il Duce' for Hitler and Mussolini were also indicative of personality cults. According to Lee, the highly nationalistic opinions encouraged by both leaders found expression in common demonstrations such as military rallies, balcony speeches, roman salutes and the apparent rebirth of traditional culture and music. Boszat explains that, unlike Mussolini, Hitler used highly anti-semitic propaganda to unite the nation against common enemies, thereby gaining power from a united Nazi front. Another propaganda method used by Hitler andMussolini was the way both leaders were 'detached' from the doings of their military units. Whitlam relates that Mussolini's arrest of Dumini during the Matteoti Crisis, acquitted him of blame, and Mommson describes the Night of the Long Knives when Rohm, the leader of the S.A., was murdered, detaching Hitler from S.A. violence. This caused the public to believe that the wrongs of the Fascist party could not be blamed on its leader, giving Hitler and Mussolini power over the minds of the people. The methods Hitler and Mussolini employed in acquiring power were both similar and contrasting, these comparisons being clearly seen in their political stance, the nature of army associations, the utilization of fascist militia groups, coercion of political and public opinions, communist opposition, exploitation of religious support and the methods of propaganda. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Castro's rise to power

    A rural proletariat developed, demanding better wages and working conditions. The economic system developed due to American intervention fostered the creation of a social sector available for mobilization. Again, all of these contributed to arise an extreme feeling of nationalism and national unity which led people into, eventually falling for Castro's promises of sovereignty and independence.

  2. The rise of Hitler and the Nazi party

    However, a large amount of success was achieved during his trial in Munich, where Hitler voice his ideas and promoted the Nazi party before a mass of reporters, earning support and praise from those present.

  1. Developments of Music During the Middle Ages

    2007. <www.carolinaclassical.com/Medieval.pdf> McComb, Todd M. "Ancient Music." 2004. Early Music FAQ. 11 Dec. 2007. <http://www.Medieval.org/emfaq/beginlst/ancient.html> "Medieval Music: Birth of Polyphony." 2000. Medieval Music. 12 Dec. 2007. <http://www.stanford.edu/~jrdx/Medieval.html> Pincherle, Marc. "On the Origins of the String Quartet." The Musical Quarterly. June-July 1929: 77-78. Pisk, Paul A., and Homer Ulrich.

  2. What was the nature of opposition to Hitler and why did it achieve so ...

    fearing the effect on war effort, gave way and ended the policy. The Lutheran's also offered resistance under the leadership of Pastor Niem´┐Żler and formed with several thousand priests the Confessional Church to maintain independence. Hitler, thus, had to dissolve the "Reichskirche" and create a new Department of State for Church Affairs.

  1. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    In the nick of time, Austria came to Piedmont's rescue. Emperor Francis Joseph, determined to humiliate Piedmont and to demonstrate that she had given way to Austria and not to the other foreign powers. Issued an ultimatum, which was rejected.

  2. Compare and Contrast the rise to power of Hitler and Lenin

    (Instead he went through a short charade of supporting the Constituent Assembly). Not many Russians had seen Lenin's ideas in print before 1917, whereas 'Mein Kampf' was a best seller long before Hitler became Chancellor. For this reason, though we can contrast Lenin's advocacy of international brotherhood, with Hitler's nationalism

  1. Women and Communal Strikes in the Crisis of 1917 - 1922 &amp;amp; The ...

    It provided escapism in the form of organized recreational events. Fascists argued they shielded women from the disappointment of the male realm in justifying stripping away access to higher education or professional jobs. Being a predominately Catholic nation, Fascist Italy formed closer ties with the Church in upholding patriarchal society

  2. Assess the methods and conditions which enabled Hitler to rise to power.

    of strong rule which had been missing since the Kaiser and offered hope for the future. Hitler was a brilliant speaker, a good organizer and politician. He was a driven, unstable man, who believed he had been called by God to become dictator of Germany and rule the world.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work