• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and Contrast the Policies of Alexander II and Alexander III

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Abhishek Puri History- HL 20/08/2009 Compare and Contrast the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III Tsar's Alexander II and his son, Alexander III had different an entirely different ideology when it came to the question of reform. On one hand, Alexander II was a liberalist, this reflects in his reforms which include the Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861- where twenty to thirty million serfs were emancipated on private estates and also domestic households and also the abolishment of capital punishment. Other reforms of Alexander II included the founding of the Zemstva- a system of local self-government. On the other hand, successor Alexander III had a conservative ideology. He believed in the doctrines of Nationalism, Eastern Orthodoxy and autocracy. Alexander III often questioned his father's reforms, which he thought were too liberal and diminish the power of autocratic leadership of the country. After his accession of the throne, Alexander III started a wave of "anti-reforms", as he reversed his father's liberal reforms. ...read more.

Middle

However, under Alexander III, the power under the Zemstva was acutely restricted. These administrative powers held previously by the Zemstva were handed to the Ministry of Interior in 1889. Thus, Alexander III restricted what people could do in Russia and accumulated that power in his own hands. Another contrasting policy between the Tsars was that of Education. Previously, education was only affordable to the very wealthy. However, Alexander II began a new era in terms of who could receive education. In order to increase literacy in Russia, Primary and Secondary Education was available for all citizens of the empire by 1863. Alexander II also permitted the discussion of sensitive topics in universities such as government and law. This liberalization of the education system resulted in much higher literacy rates and the ability for students to express themselves. However, Alexander III saw this universal education coverage as a threat to Russian autocracy. Therefore, the high schools could not allow admissions for all social classes; Grammar schools were restricted only for the elite. ...read more.

Conclusion

Thus, the policy of promoting Russian ethnicity and suppressing other ethnicities was shared by both Tsars, but Alexander III pushed his father's policies to a further level due to his belief that it was the ethnic minorities who were responsible for Alexander II's death. Alexander II had envisioned a modern Russia and thus, implemented his liberal Judicial and Educational policies. However, Alexander III viewed these policies as a threat to Russia autocracy and immediately began reversing them when he accessed the throne. Russia had a lot to gain from Alexander II's policies such as, high literacy rates and a modern perspective. However, Alexander III made sure his policies concentrated as much power towards him and restricted the power given to the common man. At the same time, Alexander III was more a more responsible leader in terms of Foreign policy as he had to secure the country's economy- waging war and conquests for annexation only strain economic growth. The Russian Empire was vast and comprised of numerous ethnicities; both Tsar's created policies which sponsored the belief that the empire should be "Russified" and the influence of ethnic minorities must be kept to a bare minimum. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

**/***
There are some good contrasts in this essay but there is a tendency for them to read as simple, implicit differences. The essay would benefit from better organisation and rigorous, critical analysis when discussing these two Tsars. There are many areas of comparison - both were Tsars with a divine right to rule. They both wanted the same goal for Russia but came at the problem from two different angles. Create a compare/contrast table before approaching an essay such as this and look at such factors as; political, economic, religious, social intellectual etc this will help organise your ideas more clearly and gives you a framework to follow in your answer. It also helps you work on a thesis which you can hang your argument off. Overall, some good points but a little one sided in favour of differences.

Marked by teacher Natalie Stanley 09/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Notes on German unification - main events

    had to leave Berlin --> he only really left because he did want to use his artillery in Berlin and damage any buildings (the revolution was quite mild) - Austria is far more affected by the revolutions of 1848-9 than Prussia - The Frankfurt Parliament; o The Assembly or Diet

  2. Free essay

    May the League of Nations be considered a complete failure? Answer this question and ...

    Similarly, Russia was not invited to join as it had previously retreated from the war in 1917, whereas Germany would only join later in 1926. The absence of America deprived the League of Nations of military support and of psychological motivation, in addition to causing a tangible financial loss.

  1. Was germany to blame for WWI?

    The main cause of tension between Germany and Great Britain was over the navy. Germany wanted to increase its power by gaining overseas colonies and that is why they built such a great navy, to defend its colonies. Great Britain felt threatened by Germany and they increased their navy.

  2. the causes and consequences of the spanish civil war

    In April of 1931, after the republicans won the elections in all the major cities of Spain, the King was forced into exile. Spain was declared a republic, and the monarchy was abolished. Two parties emerged in Spain: the conservative right-wing party and Socialist Republican Party.

  1. Compare and Contrast the causes of World War I and World War II

    Militarism also was a cause of both WWI and WWII. Before the outbreak of war in 1914, Germany had developed an army that was powerful, efficient and successful in battle against Austria-Hungary (1860s) and even France (1870s).

  2. To what extent was Germany responsible for WWI?

    France and Britain by issuing a statement of support for Moroccan independence. This was then followed by the formation of the Triple Entente, which brought forth Germany?s threat of ?encirclement.? Germany did not then stop at that. A German gunboat arrived in Agadir when there was a local uprising.

  1. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Revealed army leadership?s weakness and corruption. 2. Army depended on the loyalty of the serfs who had been conscripted; the hardship encouraged a more critical attitude among serfs. Expressed though an increasing number of agricultural disturbances. 3. Called into question the efficiency of the Russian army which had now become inferior to the French and English armies.

  2. Compare and contrast the results of WW1 and WW2

    Whilst after WW2, compared with the peace settlement of Versailles, the boundary changes were relatively slight with the exception of Poland, but the winning powers were aware not to punish Germany too harsh this time and tried to make a fair agreement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work