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Detailed Revision notes on the Peloponnesian War and Punic Wars.

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Introduction

Big Wars: Module One- Peloponnesian War and Punic Wars________________________________________________ * What are Big Wars? o Big wars involve all or almost all of the great power of the era and the powers themselves consider the stakes high (hegemony/dominance or survival) o They mobilize lots of resources for large-scale or protracted fighting Explaining War __________________________________________ * Definition of war must have these components (4): armed conflict/organized violence, waged deliberately, by two or more independent political units against each other, exceeding some casualty threshold (ex. 1,000 deaths) * 3 types of war: inter-state, extra-state, intra-states * MIDS: Militarized interstate disputes involve: small wars with < than 1,000 battle deaths or deliberate disputes between states where military force is threatened, displayed or used MIDS refer to 3 types of state actions: explicit over threats to use armed forces, mobilizing/displaying armed force, using armed force barely * Power polarity: unipolar, bipolar and multipolar * Balance of power: opposing alliances tend to develop equal power so that they balance * Alliances: can be during war/peace time, can mutate (adding/dropping members) * 2 explanations: Realist- collect resources against common threat, Constructivist-strengthen and protect common characteristic of member states o Problems with alliances: collective actions problems, ambiguity of alliance clauses/promises, sub-game theory imperfection, moral hazard, costly obligations * Deterrence: coercive persuasion based on threats not to attack you, make them think expected costs is higher than rewards * Preemption is strike first and Prevention is prevent other side from getting weapons and objections * Security dilemma: by one state increasing its security, other states feel threatened and sets off chain of defensive reactions o Collective security: goal is punish aggressor but hard to define one * Origins of war include man's evilness, the state (relationships between governments), the system of international relations * Why don't states always avoid war? --> systematic misperception (overestimate/underestimate chances/costs of winning/fighting), inability to divided wanted issue/territory, commitment issues, information problems with incentives to lie First Peloponnesian War ___ ________________________________________________ * Long-standing tensions between Sparta and Athens revive after Greeks repel second Persian invasion, 480-479 BC * First Peloponnesian War (460 - 445 BC) ...read more.

Middle

oligarch hates Athens for supporting the democrats against them, Thebes hates Athens for blocking its domination of Boeotia * Cumulating grievances mattered b/c of mid-sized powers mattered in Athens and Sparta. Athens depended on resources of its empire (wanted Argos for this plus its location). Sparta depends on voluntary assistance from its allies * Thebes has a large army, Corinth and Corcyra had large navies, Thebes and Corinth with Sparta and Corcyra neutral at this point * Corcyra and Corinth colony-metropolis quarrel: there was a civil war in Epdiamnus, losers in the civil war sought aid from its metropolis (Corcyra), Corcyra says no so losers go to Corcyra's metropolis (Corinth) after consulting the Oracle of Delphi * Corinth leaps at the chance to show up Corcyra and add to its trading network, claimed that it was the metroplis of Epidamnus and not Corcyra. Corinth marches on land to avoid Corcyra's seapower) and reinstalled oligarchs in Epidamnus. Corcyra furious sends troops to restore the democrats in Epidamnus. * Corinth fearing loss, organizes a naval assualt and asks help from allies (Megara provides ships, Thebes some money). Now Corcyra seeks to halt escalation. * Corcyra asks Corinth to remove settlers from Epdiamnus and submit issue to arbitration. Sparta tries to promote compromise but Corinth rejects it and this means Corcyra would try to find allies whereever b/c Sparta is with Corinth. Corcyra wins in navy. And Corinth assembles larger fleet and collects allies o ***side note: Sparta treats allies as independent states and offers advice but Athens rules over them and is coercive * Corinth urges Athens to remain indifferent and points out it remained indifferent during the uprising of Athenian colonies. Without Corinth's restraint, Athens wouldn't haven't been able to retain dominance. Corcyra had a powerful counter argument--> Athens would be far more powerful if it added corcyra and its navy b/c Corinth would oppose Athens in a war anyways. ...read more.

Conclusion

Began with 40,000 troops and 60 elephants and finished travel with 26,000 troops and 26 elephants. o When he arrived in Italy, he was outnumbered, but repeatedly won, killing 80-100,000 Roman soldiers. Tactics brilliant which included planned double envelopment at Cannae o Battle of Trebia: first major battle, plan to send cavalry and induce Romans to pursue, when Romans did he sprang a trap w/ his army, killed 30,000 Roman troops in a day. Victory led Cisalpine Gauls back to Carthage. o Battle of Lake Trasimen 217 BC: Hannibal traps, slaughters inept Romans * Hannibal hid his army behind hills and waited for Roman army to march though narrow pass nex to lake. Carthage's surprise attack killed 15,000 Romans o Cannae 216BC: first double envelopment, Roman assembled 80,000 troops and met Hannibal's 30,000. Hannibal let the Roman legions advance. Calvary went to sides and rear and killed 70,000 Romans while Carthage suffered minimal losses. o Most Italian cities stayed loyal to Rome and Hannibal never captured the capital o Rome never surrendered and changed tactics to avoid head on battles. Roman armies shadowed Hannibal but not attacked them. o Hannibal couldn't win the war b/c Fabius tactics and: Rome's allies remained loyal, couldn't seize capital, Romans didn't give up and adapted strategies o Hannibal trapped in Italy. Rome controlled the seas so couldn't leave or bring more troops. Hannibal went home to Africa and met Scipio, Roman leader in Carthage o Battle of Zama: Hannibal lost and 20,000 Carthaginians killed giving Rome victory of 2nd Punic War * Consequences of second Punic War: Carthage marginalized as a power. Lost African lands to Spain, pay Rome, limited to navy of 10 ships. Rome expanded and gave Carthage's territories to ally Numidia. Formed 2 Spanish territories and moved into South France to control all transit from Italy to Spain by 180BC * Third Punic War: Cato the Elder wanted Carthage to be destroyed, 149BC Rome set out to obliterate Carthage and it was a long siege. ...read more.

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