• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Essay Plan. To what extent was the Afghanistan war important for the end of the Cold War?

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Essay Plan End of the Cold War. To what extent was the Afghanistan war important for the end of the Cold War? Thesis: Afghanistan brought about several economic problems for the Soviet Union, which destabilized it and contributed to the end of rivalries however the main reason for the end of the Cold War were the actions taken by Gorbachev, Reagan?s response and the further internal consequences in the USSR. Paragraph #1: The war in Afghanistan represented the trigger cause for a series of political and economical reforms in the Soviet Union, which were only possible through Gorbachev, the first Russian leader to admit the failure of such war. 1. 1982: the Mujahedeen controlled 75% of Afghanistan despite fighting the might of the world?s second most powerful military power. 1980: America ended SALT I. ...read more.


1. Gorbachev came to power in 1985, by 1989 he had ordered the withdrawal of soviet troops from Afghanistan after agreements and negotiations in 1988 with the Afghans. 2. Perestroika: Seeking to bring the Soviet Union up to economic par with capitalist countries such as Germany, Japan, and the U.S., he decentralized economic controls and encouraged enterprises to become self-financing. 3. Glasnost: Soviet policy of open discussion of political and social issues. Glasnost also permitted criticism of government officials and allowed the media freer dissemination of news and information. 4. Gorbachev cancelled the implementation of the Brezhnev doctrine and accepted the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1990. 5. Interpretations: Dimitri Volkogonov: uses the word "paradox" more than any other in his account of Gorbachev in power - the convinced Communist who killed Communism; the Leninist who believed Soviet power could be democratized. ...read more.


Paragraph #4: Gorbachev?s actions and Regan?s responses generated internal pressures among the Soviet bloc and sublevations in countries as Poland which contributed to the end of the cold war. 1. Czechoslovakia rebelled in 1968 against communism and Alexander Dubcek became the leader. This leader began a process of economic and political emancipation called the Prague spring. 2. In April 14th, 1988, the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan signed an agreement known as the Geneva accords. In was agreed a full withdrawal of Soviets by February 1989. 3. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members. This forced Gorbachev to declare the East European countries free 1988. 4. Historiography: At first the Soviets gave us an ultimatum: either bring the situation under control or we will cut off supplies of oil, gas and other raw materials. We had to convince our allies that we would not undermine the Warsaw Pact or allow the state to be undermined. General Jaruzelski speaking in 1995 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    The claims that the allies gave little or no material help to the Soviet Union. Firstly, the British sent many supplies through the Arctic Convoys. But secondly, the Americans provided the Soviet Union with massive supplies of military hardware, weapons, ammunition, food and equipment.

  2. Why did Canada send troops to Afghanistan

    Eight months after 9/11, John McCallum, Canada's thirty-fifth Minister of National Defence, responded to the media's attack of Canada's role in Afghanistan with three simple words: "It's self defence."16 Furthermore, Brigadier-General David Fraser frankly stated the possibility of a terrorist attack on Canadian soil: "Afghanistan is the home of the

  1. To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow(TM)s hold over Czechoslovakia, and Eastern ...

    for socialism as a socially just form of democracy in conflict with Communism as a system of autocratic organization and, eventually, government"1 The effects of the war on the USSR were devastating having lost over 10.7 million men (approx. 6.4% of its population).

  2. To what extent did Alexander II's reforms cause more problems than they solved?

    of conscription for everybody was a great move towards weakening class privilege. This new reform supported the Tsar as well, as now he had a stronger army available to defend him and Russia. However, substitutes could be provided by people conscripted, this increasing the exploitation of the poor (as the

  1. U.S. Civil War Essay

    But, it was mostly about jobs and the economy. Lincoln "... [recommended] to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages (Lincoln, 1863)." Lincoln directly encouraged the former slaves to find paid wage jobs. Without a doubt, a unified economy was top priority.

  2. To what extent, if any, did the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster contribute to the fall ...

    Gorbachev was still trying to reform the corrupt government system and thus, he kept pressing for the concept of glasnost,31 although his May 14, 1986 address about the accident contradicted his commitment. Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policy of glasnost to reduce the amount of corruption within the Soviet government, which

  1. Causation of Cold War

    Moreover, the USSR was wary of the development of capitalism since it posed a direct threat to communism and the USSR. Thus, it is fair to say, fear bled throughout the USSR. Walter LaFeber, a renowned Post-Revisionist historian, argues that fear even caused an over estimation of the enemy's threat to the USSR.

  2. Analyse the causes and consequences of Glasnost and Perestroika up until 2000

    Alcoholism among workers led to further inefficiencies in production. Perestroika would allow people to work for their own gain and profit, thus improving the efficiency of the economy. Political stagnation was also a cause for Perestroika. Political change was necessary for economical change and Glasnot to take place.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work