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First World War

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THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1. WESTERN FRONT Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. A "contested armed frontier" during a war is called a "front". A. von Schlieffen Plan This is the plan of Germans in the WW1. They were between their two enemies, France and Russia, so they tried to find a way to avoid fighting with them at the same time. This plan is a quick knock out blow against France. It was simple but too risky. The idea was to send German army through Belgium to northern France to knock France out of the war. After defeating France in six weeks, Germany was going to send all their troops to Russia. Germany took two risks with this plan. First, they thought that England wouldn't help Belgium. And the second is they thought that Russia's army wouldn't mobilize quickly. Belgium was a neutral country but when Germany declared war on Belgium, England got into the war. With Germany's invasion of Belgium, a new country got in the war and this didn't end the war. Now that Belgium was in the game, they wanted some of the profits of war and were ready to fight until they got a fair share, just like the other countries that joined the war after. In reality, German plan was too ambitious. The fear of a two front war drove German Generals to explore any solutions. ...read more.


Each side needed to get over the shock of the first few weeks and re-supply its forces with food, ammunition and winter clothing. Soldiers on the Western Front went through enormous range of experiences and living in trenches is one of them. By 1915, trenches developed into complex defensive systems. Soldiers guard or repaired trenches or just tried to sleep in the trenches. They changed their line trenches by time. They were living with corpses, rats and lice. They sometimes didn't see enemies and they sometimes were the subject to non-stop bombardments. Every soldier respected their general and they were well disciplined. 2. WAR AT SEA The main aim was to control the seas to stop supplies getting to enemy. A. the Battle of Jutland and its results The only major sea battle was Jutland. Germans had the best exchanges but British navy was too large. Germany lost 11 ships when British lost 14. Both sides kind of won the battle. Germany caused more damage than it received but couldn't remove blockade back. B. British Blockade of Germany This was the key factor in the defeat of Germany. They didn't have food supplies. Loads of people lost their will to fight. Food shortages in Germany itself had pushed many civilians to the brink of starvation. Farmers were short of laborers to bring in the harvest as young men had been drafted into the military. By 1918, Germany was producing only 50% of the milk it had done before the war. ...read more.


Things were not going well for the Allies at the time. The Allies looked to America for salvation with the expectation that the industrial strength of the United States would replenish the supply of war material necessary for victory. In most cases these expectations were unrealistic. For example, the US built no more than 800 airplanes prior to 1917, and yet the French premier called on the US to immediately produce 2,000 airplanes per month. Additionally, the Allies expected the United States to provide an unlimited supply of manpower they could absorb into their beleaguered divisions. But USA said that they would fight under their own flag and own leadership. After that with the war over, Americans wished to forget Europe's troubles and return to "the good old days." Congress rejected Wilson's call for participation in the League of Nations. The nation turned inward again. This complacency remained unchallenged until Hitler's grab for European domination some 20 years later. B. Its effects on the Western Front Despite of their national pride, they really changed the war and gave a good fight in the western front. With Britain and France, they won the war against Germany. C. German Surrender The First World War lasted for four years and three months. It began on August 4, 1914 and ended on November 11, 1918. It involved sixty sovereign states, overthrew four Empires (German Empire, Hapsburg Empire, Turkish Empire, Russian Empire), gave birth to seven new nations, took ten million combatant lives (another 30 million were wounded), and cost about � 35,000 million. ...read more.

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