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Historical Investigation - League of Nations - Abyssinian crisis

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Introduction

THE LEAGUE OF NATION'S FAILURE: How can the failure of the resolution of the Abyssinian crisis of 1935 be seen as the beginning of the end of the League of Nations? Historical Investigation Table of Contents Table of Contents ............ 2 A. Plan of Investigation ............ 3 B. Summary of Evidence ............ 3-5 C. Evaluation of Sources ............ 5-6 D. Analysis ............ 6-8 E. Conclusion ............ 8-9 F. Sources and Word Limit ......... ... 10 A. Plan of the Investigation How can the failure of the resolution of the Abyssinian crisis of 1935 be seen as the beginning of the end of the League of Nations? The Abyssinian Crisis of 1935 was a major international dispute that questioned the existence and the credibility of the League of Nations (LON). The purpose of this investigation is to analyze actions taken by the LON and how it failed in resolving the dispute. This investigation will analyze the pre-existing political conditions between Italy and Abyssinia and the hesitations of Britain and France to take a stand to oppress Italy's power. The LON's attempt to negotiate with the aggressor, their inability to win the support of other League members and their hesitations in making decision, led the LON to lose its credibility. The two sources, "Appeal to the League of Nations," a speech by Emperor of Abyssinia in June 1936 and Samuel Hoare's speech to the LON in September 1935 are used for the evaluation. ...read more.

Middle

D. Analysis The Abyssinian Crisis occurred because the pride of Italy was hurt when it was defeated by Ethiopia at the Battle of Adowa. Italy's accusation of Ethiopia on aggression of Wal Wal might be intentional to make an excuse of breaking the treaty and attacking Ethiopia and regain its lost pride. Britain and France did not want to provoke Italy because they were afraid of wars. In private, Hoare wanted to negotiate with Mussolini to stop wars; however, he wanted to satisfy the public opinion of Britain that supported collective security. The speech that Samuel made to the League in 1935 shows that he tried to satisfy the Britain by making a statement to support the collective security fully. It was more likely for Hoare to turn down the Hoare-Laval Plan because he needed popularity for his election year. The fact that the two major European power of the LON tried to negotiate with the Mussolini, the aggressor of the crisis, was the biggest factor that made the LON to lose its credibility drastically. Donald Birn, a historian, argues that to follow the LON's aim of collective security, all the countries should have expected a risk of war with Italy to protect Abyssinia. He criticized the LON and stated that the existence of LON is meaningless if the collective security cannot be followed by the other countries, especially the leading powers.23 The LON should have expected a war and support the weaker countries that are being oppressed to prevent wars. ...read more.

Conclusion

The League of Nations and Its Problems, Three Lectures. (Oxford: Longman, 1919) 24 6 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 57 7 "How Strong was the League?" GCSE Modern World History Revision Site. 31 Mar. 2009 8 Earl of Avon, Facing the Dictators (London,1962) 255 9 Neville, Peter. Hitler and Appeasement: The British Attempt to Prevent the Second World War. (London: Hambledon Continvum, 2006) 67 10 McDonough, Frank. Nevile Chamberlain, Appeasement and the British Road to War. (New York: Manchester University Press, 1988) 97 11 Frank 97 12 Shepherd, Robert. A Class Divided: Appeasement and the Road to Munich 1938. (London: Macmillian, 1988) 73 13 Frank 98 14 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 156 15 Birn 159 16 "Haile Selassie, "Appeal to the League of Nations," June 1936." Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts. 11 Apr. 2009 17 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 57 18 Brailsford, Henry Noel. A League of Nations. (Ashford: Headley Brothers: 1917) 87 19 Birn 160 20 Brailsford 89 21 Brailsford 89 22 Cheesman, R. E. "International Affairs." Royal Institute of International Affairs (1937): 317-18. Jstor. Jstor. 2 Apr. 2009 23 The Times, 12 September 1935 24 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 165 25 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 103 26 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 128 ?? ?? ?? ?? 3 ...read more.

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