• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Historical Investigation - League of Nations - Abyssinian crisis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

THE LEAGUE OF NATION'S FAILURE: How can the failure of the resolution of the Abyssinian crisis of 1935 be seen as the beginning of the end of the League of Nations? Historical Investigation Table of Contents Table of Contents ............ 2 A. Plan of Investigation ............ 3 B. Summary of Evidence ............ 3-5 C. Evaluation of Sources ............ 5-6 D. Analysis ............ 6-8 E. Conclusion ............ 8-9 F. Sources and Word Limit ......... ... 10 A. Plan of the Investigation How can the failure of the resolution of the Abyssinian crisis of 1935 be seen as the beginning of the end of the League of Nations? The Abyssinian Crisis of 1935 was a major international dispute that questioned the existence and the credibility of the League of Nations (LON). The purpose of this investigation is to analyze actions taken by the LON and how it failed in resolving the dispute. This investigation will analyze the pre-existing political conditions between Italy and Abyssinia and the hesitations of Britain and France to take a stand to oppress Italy's power. The LON's attempt to negotiate with the aggressor, their inability to win the support of other League members and their hesitations in making decision, led the LON to lose its credibility. The two sources, "Appeal to the League of Nations," a speech by Emperor of Abyssinia in June 1936 and Samuel Hoare's speech to the LON in September 1935 are used for the evaluation. ...read more.

Middle

D. Analysis The Abyssinian Crisis occurred because the pride of Italy was hurt when it was defeated by Ethiopia at the Battle of Adowa. Italy's accusation of Ethiopia on aggression of Wal Wal might be intentional to make an excuse of breaking the treaty and attacking Ethiopia and regain its lost pride. Britain and France did not want to provoke Italy because they were afraid of wars. In private, Hoare wanted to negotiate with Mussolini to stop wars; however, he wanted to satisfy the public opinion of Britain that supported collective security. The speech that Samuel made to the League in 1935 shows that he tried to satisfy the Britain by making a statement to support the collective security fully. It was more likely for Hoare to turn down the Hoare-Laval Plan because he needed popularity for his election year. The fact that the two major European power of the LON tried to negotiate with the Mussolini, the aggressor of the crisis, was the biggest factor that made the LON to lose its credibility drastically. Donald Birn, a historian, argues that to follow the LON's aim of collective security, all the countries should have expected a risk of war with Italy to protect Abyssinia. He criticized the LON and stated that the existence of LON is meaningless if the collective security cannot be followed by the other countries, especially the leading powers.23 The LON should have expected a war and support the weaker countries that are being oppressed to prevent wars. ...read more.

Conclusion

The League of Nations and Its Problems, Three Lectures. (Oxford: Longman, 1919) 24 6 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 57 7 "How Strong was the League?" GCSE Modern World History Revision Site. 31 Mar. 2009 8 Earl of Avon, Facing the Dictators (London,1962) 255 9 Neville, Peter. Hitler and Appeasement: The British Attempt to Prevent the Second World War. (London: Hambledon Continvum, 2006) 67 10 McDonough, Frank. Nevile Chamberlain, Appeasement and the British Road to War. (New York: Manchester University Press, 1988) 97 11 Frank 97 12 Shepherd, Robert. A Class Divided: Appeasement and the Road to Munich 1938. (London: Macmillian, 1988) 73 13 Frank 98 14 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 156 15 Birn 159 16 "Haile Selassie, "Appeal to the League of Nations," June 1936." Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts. 11 Apr. 2009 17 Birn, Donald. League of Nations Union, 1918-1945. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981) 57 18 Brailsford, Henry Noel. A League of Nations. (Ashford: Headley Brothers: 1917) 87 19 Birn 160 20 Brailsford 89 21 Brailsford 89 22 Cheesman, R. E. "International Affairs." Royal Institute of International Affairs (1937): 317-18. Jstor. Jstor. 2 Apr. 2009 23 The Times, 12 September 1935 24 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 165 25 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 103 26 Rose N., Vansittart, Study of a Diplomat (London, 1978) 128 ?? ?? ?? ?? 3 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Free essay

    May the League of Nations be considered a complete failure? Answer this question and ...

    The first was introduced by the British Prime Minister in the attempt to convince the members of the international body to "accept arbitration (Lowe, p.47)" of the League and to pledge and commit themselves to acting, in order to protect a hypothetical victim of attack.

  2. Woodrow Wilson. The absence of the United States in the League of Nations led ...

    In addition, United States had already violated its policy of isolationism and the Monroe Doctrine by its involvement in World War I. It was unlikely the Senate and the public would allow the United States to violate it again.

  1. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    � In 1852 by bringing together his own centre-right supporters into coalition with a centre-left group, he produced the connubio (marriage) of Piedmont's politically moderate middle ground. This enabled him to remain firmly in control of the government, resisting the opposition of both the clerical right and the radical left.

  2. The League of Nations was a failure. How far do you agree with this ...

    From this we can see that he League was ignored by each country, and did not try to enforce the resolutions, as it only produced them. The Abyssinian Crisis in 1934-36, concerned Italy invading Abyssinia. This time the League reacted swiftly, for example, it imposed immediate ban on arms sales to Italy while allowing them to Abyssinia.

  1. History Investigation - Hitler

    After two more elections, and no majority, Hitler was invited to become chancellor in January 1933. Hitler was now in control of vital services and in a great position of influence. By trying to pass the Enabling Act, Hitler strived to achieve a one-party state.

  2. WW2 historical investigation. To assess the degree to which intelligence lead to the victory ...

    Ibid 26. Williamson p.76 27. Lewin p. 212 28. Ibid p. 213 29. Ibid. 30. Ratcliff, R.A. Delusions of intelligence Enigma, Ultra, and the end of Secure Ciphers p.3 31. Wiliamson p. 75 32. Ibid. 33. Central office of Information The Battle of the Atlantic p. 5 C. Evaluation of sources.

  1. Mao and China Revision Guide

    * Ideograms are small pictures that are used in place of alphabets used to portray the meaning of the spoken word. * The PRC then introduced a method of solving this problem by creating a form of written mandarin that became universalized around China.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    - 150 000 Palestinians remained resident in Israel with the promise of equal freedoms and rights but 725 000 became refugees. The bulk of the refugees ended up in the WB and GS and in neighbouring Arab countries, especially Transjordan, Syria and Lebanon - Intellectual Palestinians went to the big cities, but the majority of them 80% (fellaheen)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work