• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17

History Before WWI

Extracts from this document...


1 WHAT LED TO THE DOWNFALL OF THE TSAR? [A] Russia under the tsars before 1914 Russification - Russian dominance - The size and diversity of the empire made it extremely difficult to govern - National minorities resented Russian control; saw russification as a fundamental attack on their way of life and a monstrously unfair policy that discriminated against them - One of the policy of russification involved making non-Russians use the Russian language and adopt Russian customs - Russian officials were put in to run regional government in non-Russian parts of the empire - Russian language used in schools, law courts and regional governments - Russians got important jobs in government and state-sponsored industry - During the 19th century, protests and uprisings from national groups seeking more autonomy [B] The social structure of tsarist Russia Peasants: - Life was hard and unremitting - Most were poor, illiterate and uneducated - Disease Land and agriculture - Agricultural methods were inefficient and backward - Not enough land to go around - The vast expansion of the peasant population led to overcrowding and competition for land - Before 1905, most peasants had serious debt problems because of land repayments to the gov't. - Freed in 1861 by the nobility and given plots of land - But forced to pay for their land by making yearly redemption payments to the gov't - Peasants felt betrayed by this b/c they could not afford to pay - Gov't cancelled the land repayments in 1905 Urban Workers: - Wages were generally very low and working conditions very poor Industry - Growing industry - By 1914, Russia was the world's 4th largest producer of coal, pig-iron and steel [C] How was Russia governed under the tsars? - Tsarist Russia was an autocracy - The tsar had an imperial council to advise him and a cabinet of ministers who ran the various gov't departments; they reported to him directly - The tsar was the pivot on which the system rested - ...read more.


The SRs also attracted intellectuals who wanted to make contact with the mass of the population The Social Democrats - In the 1880s, it seemed to some Russian intellectuals that there was no hope of a revolutionary mvmt developing amongst the peasantry. Instead they turned to the latest theories of a German philosopher, Karl Marx. Marxism, an optimistic theory in which there was progress through the development of industry and the working class to the ultimate triumph of socialism - In 1898, Marxists formed the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party but it split into two factions at the Second Party Congress in 1903- the Bolsheviks (Majoritarians) and the Mensheviks (Minoritarians); the split was caused by the abrasive personality of Lenin, who was determined to see his notion of the revolutionary party triumph. Main beliefs: Both factions accepted the main tenets of Marxism, but they split over the role of the party Support: Came mainly from the working class. The Bolsheviks tended to attract younger, more militant peasant workers who liked the discipline, firm leadership and simple slogans. The Mensheviks tended to attract different types of workers and members, especially Jews and Georgians Bolsheviks- Lenin believed that a revolutionary party should: � Be made up of a small number of highly disciplined professional revolutionaries � Operate under centralized leadership � Have a system of small cells (3 ppl) to make it less essay for the police to infiltrate them It was the job of the party to bring socialist consciousness to the workers and lead them through the revolution. Critics warned that a centralized party like this would lead to dictatorship Mensheviks (w/ the provisional gov't)- They believed that the party should: � Be broadly based and take in all those who wished to join � Be more democratic, allowing its members to have a say in policy-making � Encourage trade unions to help the working class improve their conditions It took the Marxist line that there would be a long period of bourgeois democratic ...read more.


chairmen who were ignored - Committees of Public Organizations (multi- or non-party bodies run by middle-class zemstvo members) were set up, but membership rapidly expanded to take in representatives of various workers', soldiers', trade union and other popular committees - As news of the revolution spread, peasants also started to set up committees and give voice to their opinions and demands - The PM, lvov, more radical and populist, encouraged localities to run their own affairs - The main issue causing problems was war WHO TOOK CONTROL OF RUSSIA AFTER THE FEB. REVOLUTION? 1) The downfall of the Tsar had been swift b/c there was very little support left for him in any section of society 2) The Feb. Rev. Seems to have been a spontaneous and popular rev. With little involvement from revolutionary leaders 3) A prov. Gov't was formed by liberal politicians to rule Russia during a transition period until a Constituent Assembly could set up a new system of gov't 4) The Prov. Gov't had little power in Petrograd 5) The power lay with a rival body - the Soviet - formed at the same time 6) The Soviet, led by socialist intellectuals, represented workers and soldiers. It controlled the armed forces, industries and services in the capital 7) The Soviet could have taken control but had several reasons for not doing so and for co-operating with the Prov. Gov't. In particular, the Soviet leaders did not want a civil war to break out 8) Things seemed to start well, as the Prov. Gov't announced elections and civil rights for the Russian ppl 9) In the rest of Russia, all sorts of bodies were set up to run local gov't. The soviets were the most important of these bodies. They were simply councils or committees run by local ppl, non-party socialists. Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, pretty much outside of anybody else's control 10) Things did not immediately get better after the revolution. The war was still going on and food and fuel were still in short supply ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    and American diplomatic and military plans were based mainly upon the Suez Crisis. This made it easy for the Russians to reoccupy Hungary c. The view that to give active direct military help to the Hungarians might lead to a major war between the Western Powers and the Warsaw Pact d.

  2. How did collective security develop, in particular between WWI and WWII?

    in handling aggression by other nations, even if it is not in their national interest. Not only was the League to prevent conflict, it also had to deal with humanitarian and economic issues. As such, the League of Nations would have mandates, which it would administer until the countries could stand on their own feet.

  1. Analyze the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution

    One group of revolutionaries was Marxists - that is, they believed in the ideas of Karl Marx. Revolutionaries were the ones waiting for the perfect moment to strike the match since the autocratic regime had caused a long term fatigue in the society - the long term situation let them

  2. Analyse the short and long term causes of the 1917 Feb/March Russian Revolution

    lack of reliable support amongst the respectable groups in society and he had no armed forced to fall back on. The incompetence shown by Nicholas II led eventually to a breakdown in the loyalty of his traditional supporters. He made a mistake in assuming the role of Commander-in-Chief of the

  1. Industry vs Agriculture: The Economics Leading to the Civil War

    In contrast, the North had five times the number of factories as the South as well as over ten times the number of factory workers in their possession (Economics and the Civil War). Q: Was that the only difference? A: No, another economic difference was the variation in the type of workforce.

  2. Notes on Italian unification - background and main events

    and formally handed over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emanuel - Victor Emanuel offered Garibaldi all sorts of honors, however he refused them; he then returned to Caprera to live in his simple home - In 1862, Garibaldi led an attempt to win the Papal States --> he was wounded by Italian troops, placed in prison and then released.

  1. To what extent did Alexander II's reforms cause more problems than they solved?

    After the 1867 university clampdown, students were outraged even more and the growth of radical movement increased and remained a feature of the Russian society well into the 20th century, when in 1917 Tsarist rule was finally abolished. After the defeat in the Crimean War, Alexander II tried to restore

  2. History questions on Soviet Russia and its relations with the rest of the World.

    It?s almost as if this can be considered ?survival of the fittest? as Darwin had stated. Those countries who progress find out more advanced things beyond anyone?s knowledge, and then with that greed of being the most powerful few and few find out about it or can even afford to make it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work