• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

History Essay

Extracts from this document...


Essay 2 - What was the 'Constitutional Experiment' undertaken after 1905 and why did it fail by 1917? The revolution had shaken the Tsarist regime to its foundations. The Tsar was forced to appease the revolutionaries and take necessary steps to prevent the downfall of Czarism. Therefore he issued the October Manifesto in October 1905 to pacify the people and used it as a tactic to neutralise the revolutionaries of 1905. The manifesto addressed the unrest in Russia and brought about certain changes which formed a new constitution for Russia. It pledged to grant civil liberties to the people: including personal immunity, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of association. It granted broad participation in the Duma, and a decree that no law should come into force without the consent of the state Duma. But this Constitutional Experiment failed miserably. By the provisions of the October Manifesto, two houses were created at the centre - The Imperial Council and the State Duma. ...read more.


There were 4 Dumas which were recognised throughout the course of the Constitutional Experiment. The first Duma operated in 1906, the second Duma operated in 1907. The third Duma from 1907-1912, and the fourth and last Duma lasted from 1912 - 1917, just before the beginning of the 1st World War. All four Dumas were dissolved for questioning government policy, and the obstructive policy of the Tsar led to their closing and frustration of their members. The constitutional experiment failed due to three main reasons. First, the obstructive policy of the Tsar; second, the frustration of the members of the Duma; and lastly, the effect of military defeat. After the revolution, the Tsar issued the October Manifesto, which was a precursor of the first ever Russian Constitution. The manifesto and the constitution resulted in insignificant democratization as the Tsar continued to exercise veto power over the Duma, which he dissolved and reformed several times. ...read more.


This increased the resentment of the Duma to a large extent, and since the Provisional Government did not pay much attention to the urgent land reforms and establishment of a constituent assembly as they were too determined to win the war, this paved the way for the Revolution in 1917 and eventually the Tsar was forced to abdicate. The failure of the Constitutional Experiment was more or less predictable, given the behaviour and actions of the Tsar. The wrong-doings of the Tsar was bound to provoke the people who were actually interested in giving the Duma a meaningful role and saving the constitution. And it was the Duma eventually that ended the Experiment. Therefore the first two factors were a major reason for the failure, and the third factor only accompanied the other two and acted as a catalyst. If the Tsar had succeeded in gaining victory in the War, he would have been easily able to override the Duma, but his defeat enabled the Duma to take power and force the Tsar to abdicate. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. IB Extended Essay - How where the Conquistadors able to defeat the Incan and ...

    According to historian Josh Clark, "Having lived alongside livestock for millennia gave much of Europe immunity to the worst ravages of smallpox." The Spanish first made contact with the "New World" in 1492, Christopher Columbus landed in the present day Bahaman Islands, which he called San Salvador.

  2. Russia 1905 revolution

    ( 1 ) The Reforms of Alexander II (i) Emancipation of the serfs (1861): According to the Emancipation Edict of March 3,1861, the serfs were not only freed but granted a certain portion of the noble's estates. The nobles who lost their estates were to be compensated by the government.


    The relations had deteriorated and the atmosphere had changed. The war with Germany had finished and no agreement was reached about its future. The main point was whether the four zones would be allowed to join together to form a united Germany again. Germany was to be neutralized, and the Nazi party leaders would be tried as war criminals.

  2. To what extent did Alexander Tsar II deserve the title of Tsar Liberator

    The secondary reforms triggered by emancipation were: the creation of a new system of local government - the zemstva - in 1864 and continued with a reorganization of municipal administration in 1870, a revision of the legal system in 1864 and a military reform in 1874.

  1. u.s. constitution

    certain that the federal government did not impair the state's individual governments. 11. -1795- Judicial limits. a. States are protected from lawsuits in the Eleventh amendment. However, it does not extend to all types of legal procedures; the state is only protected if a resident from one state attempts to sue another state.

  2. Was the Tsar to blame for his own downfall?

    The industrial sector of the economy grew considerably, 5% per annum according to Goldsmith. Some historians argue that this economic growth was enough for revolution to take place as by 1914 Russia had the world's largest economy, and modernization encouraged political and social instability and dissolved the cohesion of Russian society.

  1. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Problems in supply, provisioning, and leadership remained Educational reforms 1. Overall standard was improved as responsibility was transferred from the Church to the zemstva in 1864 Primary school 1. Schools declared open to all classes. 2. 1856 8000 primary schools 1880 23000.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    auspices, followed by Israeli withdrawal fro the WB and GS with forces replaced temporarily with UN ones. - Shamir then proposed his own four point plan, under US pressure. The plan was very similar to the one proposed for Palestinian autonomy at Camp David.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work